This paper is part of the Copenhagen Consensus process, which aims to assess and evaluate the opportunities available to address the ten largest challenges facing the world. One of these ten challenges is the “lack of education.” This paper will define “lack of education,” in terms of enrollments, attainments and learning achievement. It provides an analytical framework to evaluate the various options that can be used to address this issue. Education can be described as equipping people with the range of competencies necessary to lead productive, fulfilling lives fully integrated into their societies and communities. Many of the international goals are framed exclusively around enrollment, which is merely a means towards creating competencies and learning achievement. This paper discusses the scope and options for improving people’s competencies, and describes the conditions for effective policy action.