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Featuring Arindam Nandi
Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy
Paper Abstract: Despite strong recent economic growth, gender inequality remains a major concern for India. Nandi’s paper examines the effectiveness of a public policy geared towards the reduction of gender inequality. The national Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994, implemented in 1996, banned sex-selective abortions in the Indian states. Although demographers frequently mention the futility of the Act, this paper is among the first to evaluate the law using a treatment-effect type analysis of the pre-ban and post-ban periods. Using village-level and town-level longitudinal data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses, along with household survey data from other sources, Nandi finds a significantly positive impact of the PNDT Act on the female-to-male juvenile sex ratio. In the possible absence of the PNDT Act, Nandi finds that the juvenile sex ratio would have declined by another 16-20 points.
Quality affordable generic medicines play a vital role in health systems around the world. Healthy competition from quality generic medicines can help keep prices in check—a shared concern across high-income and low- and middle-income countries. But CGD’s Working Group on the Future of Global Health Procurement found that markets for generic medicines in many low- and middle-income countries are failing. According to the final report, weak and under-resourced regulatory and quality control systems in many countries can often lead healthcare workers and patients to opt for more expensive branded medicines as a proxy for quality.
Faced with a deepening financial crisis, the recently elected government of Imran Khan has embarked on an ambitious economic reform program, supported by a $6 billion IMF loan and $32 billion of associated financing. Pakistan has a long history of embarking on such reforms but not of seeing them through.
Join the leaders of Pakistan’s Economic Team to discuss why they believe this time will be different.
The Saving One Million Lives (SOML) program for results (PforR) aims to increase the utilization and quality of high impact reproductive, child health, and nutrition interventions in Nigeria. SOML was originally created in 2012 to address Nigeria’s slow progress on improving health status and health services. Since 2015, the initiative has received assistance from the World Bank through a “cash-on-delivery” (COD) approach in which the disbursement of funds is directly linked to the achievement of specific program results. This PforR funding mechanism by the World Bank uses country systems and processes and gives health managers substantial autonomy in achieving health results. Four years into the SOML PforR’s implementation, join us to explore lessons learned.
Over the last 25 years, Mexico has benefited from robust trade and financial integration with North America and strong domestic macroeconomic and financial stability, although much remains to be done on the socioeconomic front.
Against this backdrop, the economy is currently facing strong domestic and external headwinds. At home, the economy has slowed since last year, with real GDP contracting 0.2% in 1Q2019, reflecting low productivity in Mexico and softer growth in the United States. President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) has announced protectionist policies, which are not supportive of private investment. From the external side, the lingering uncertainties about Trump’s tariffs on Mexico's imports could have a major negative impact.
How should Mexico deal with these challenges? The Latin American Committee on Macroeconomic and Financial Issues (CLAAF) will discuss central questions on a) the best policy responses to market uncertainties, b) the best way to deal with the immigration flood, which is playing a key role in Trump's new tariff threats, c) what Mexico’s policymakers can learn from the recent experiences in Argentina and Brazil, and d) the most pressing reforms needed to restore investors’ confidence and Mexico's economic growth.
A light breakfast and coffee will be available at 9:30 a.m.
In recent years, Latin American countries have undertaken major fiscal consolidation measures in an effort to reduce their deficits and accumulation of debt. Despite improvements in fiscal position throughout the region, the rate of inequality reduction has slowed, capital spending (in terms of GDP) has fallen to its lowest levels since 2007 and fiscal revenues remain insufficient to finance achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Amid an uncertain macroeconomic context and fiscal consolidation, this slowdown requires a fine-tuning of policy measures. This event launches the new CEPAL Publication Fiscal Panorama of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2019, examining the role of tax policy in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper analyses the constraints of domestic resource mobilization caused by fiscal incentives and how these incentives could, instead, be geared towards investment to foster sustainable and inclusive development.