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Each year, millions of people depart poor countries to work in rich ones, where their wages rise by multiples, as study after study has found. What is much less clear—and harder to study— is how that cash affects long-run economic development in the areas those migrants come from.
This is the second of three blogs written by the Center for Global Development focused on the EU’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum. The first focused on why both returns and legal pathways are needed to effectively manage migration. This blog focuses on how to operationalize Talent Partnerships. And the third will focus on how to create a true partnership of equals with African countries of origin.
On September 23, the European Commission announced their New Pact on Migration and Asylum, “proposing a fresh start on migration: building confidence through more effective procedures and striking a new balance between responsibility and solidarity.” This focus on strengthening returns and border security is important. But Europe must do more to open up new legal pathways for migration.
Infamously, the system has led to the exploitation and abuse of migrants. While reforms are coming—be it incrementally—the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the kafalasystem’s weakness and caused many to question whether it will mark the end of the system altogether.
Over the past few years, the political and economic crisis in Venezuela has forced nearly 1.8 million Venezuelans to flee to Colombia. The Colombian government has responded warmly, taking steps to integrate Venezuelans into its society and economy. But legal and practical barriers still prevent many Venezuelans from achieving true economic inclusion, the attainment of decent work and income commensurate with their skills.
As people in poor countries get richer, they are more likely to emigrate—despite many governments' attempts to use development assistance to deter emigration. Read CGD's new work on the relationship between emigration and wealth.
The Australian Government has confirmed that labor mobility is key to economic recovery throughout the region and that they will explore options to allow more Pacific Islanders to travel to Australia. As Australia’s flagship investment in technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in the Pacific, the Australia Pacific Training Coalition (APTC) is therefore having to adapt and pivot its activities to respond to this new reality.
Inclusive policy changes spurred by COVID-19 have so far been limited and temporary, but as governments chart a path to recovery, immigrants and citizens alike would benefit from their extension well beyond the pandemic. This blog highlights two areas—access to the labor market and healthcare—where pandemic-related inclusive responses for immigrants should continue, expand, and pave the way for long-run positive change.