Ideas to Action:

Independent research for global prosperity

Publications

 

An image of the policy paper.
November 22, 2021

Who’s Responsible for Climate Change? New Evidence Based on Country-Level Estimates of Climate Debt

In this paper, we introduce the concept of climate debt and provide country-level estimates through 2035 under a business-as-usual scenario. These estimates can help inform the debate on climate change by providing a clear view of which countries have (until the present) contributed the most to climate change, as well as the likely path for climate debt by country over the next 15 years. We then discuss the implications for carbon emissions if the G-20 countries and EU were to adopt either of the two policy options proposed in recent months: the first by President Biden for the US and the other by the EU for its member countries.

A cover image for a policy paper of domestic resource mobilization in low-income countries
December 10, 2020

Domestic Revenue Mobilization in Low Income Countries: Where To From Here?

Spending needs for financing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in developing countries are large and cannot be covered by external flows alone. This has made it imperative for these countries to raise more resources domestically over time—an urgency accentuated by the fiscal impact of COVID-19, possibly with a long-lasting impact on revenue-generating capacity.

Peter Mullins , Sanjeev Gupta and Jianhong Liu
A cover image of the policy paper on institutional and political determinants of statutory tax rates
November 18, 2020

Institutional and Political Determinants of Statutory Tax Rates: Empirical Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

This paper investigates the extent to which institutional and political factors explain statutory tax rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In particular, it examines the effect of regulatory quality, political accountability, political fragmentation, the electoral cycle, and ideological orientation on corporate income tax (CIT) rates as well as top marginal personal income tax (PIT) rates during 1990-2017

An image of the cover of a paper on a fiscal dashboard
October 14, 2020

A Fiscal Policy Dashboard for Low-Income Economies

We construct a fiscal policy dashboard to provide a snapshot of the fiscal system of a country, focusing on macro-sustainability, revenue mobilization, spending composition, and redistributive effects.

Jean-Luc Schneider
A chart showing revenue in five different countries
June 1, 2020

The COVID-19 Crisis and Fiscal Reform in Low-Income Countries

The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic output and public finances in 2020 and beyond is projected to be massive. Fiscal policy can have a crucial role in mitigating the pandemic’s overall economic impact and promoting a quick recovery. It can help save lives and shield the most-affected segments of population.

January 24, 2020

Bangladesh: Impediments to Enhanced Revenue Mobilization and Equitable and Efficient Spending

Despite remarkable success in terms of growth, poverty reduction, and improvements in other socio-economic indicators, Bangladesh suffers from chronic revenue shortfalls and an extremely low tax/GDP ratio. The overall size of the government is also quite small and inadequate to meet the growing demand for public services and infrastructure, primarily due to revenue-generating limitations by the country’s tax authorities

Cover image of international taxation paper
January 22, 2020

International Taxation and Developing Countries

International tax issues are a concern for both developed and developing countries, with evidence of aggressive tax planning by multinational enterprises (MNEs). MNEs are able to exploit weaknesses in the design of the international tax framework to reduce their tax liabilities. 

Peter Mullins
Cover image for Senegal DRM case study
January 21, 2020

Senegal: Making Domestic Resource Mobilization Work to Sustain Growth and Improve Service Delivery

Senegal’s recent economic performance is impressive. For the first time, Senegal has achieved a GDP growth rate of more than 6 percent for three consecutive years (2015–2017), and per capita GDP has increased at an annual average of 4.1 percent. In parallel, progress in fiscal revenues has been recorded, with the ratio of average revenues to GDP increasing by 5.7 percentage points between 2000-2002 and 2014-2017, placing Senegal above the regional average of 15 percent.

Front cover of Zambia domestic resource mobilization paper
December 11, 2019

How Erratic Tax Policies Are Impeding Revenue Mobilization in Zambia

This case study assesses whether Zambia’s tax and fiscal policies have been impeded by political and technical constraints. Tax policy is a deliberate—yet intricate—process requiring not just well-measured choices, but also stability. Zambia has undertaken several tax reforms that have included broadening the tax base, establishing a revenue collection agency, and introducing a value-added tax (VAT). 

Ramos Emmanuel Mabugu and Eddie Rakabe