Ideas to Action:

Independent research for global prosperity

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January 13, 2022

Adolescent Refugee Girls’ Secondary Education in Ethiopia: An Empirical Analysis of Multiple Vulnerabilities in Low-Resource Displacement Settings

Refugee girls are one of the most marginalized groups in the world when it comes to school participation, with girls half as likely to enroll in secondary school as their male peers. Gender disparities can be made worse by conflict and displacement and increase as children get older. As many low- and middle-income host countries move toward more inclusive models of refugee education, it’s critical to identify barriers that may differentially limit refugee girls’ inclusion. This paper uses two unique household surveys in Ethiopia to examine household and community factors shaping participation in secondary school.

An image of the working paper.
December 15, 2021

The Paradox of Gender Equality and Economic Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Land Rights

Equal rights and proactive protection of the right for women and girls to inherit and own land in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is important to the expansion of the capabilities of women and girls to lead the kind of lives they value, and have reason to value. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the role of women’s ownership and access to land in SSA in determining gender equality and women’s economic and social outcomes, and provides suggestions to inform effective gender-sensitive land policies.

An image of Nigerian money.
December 6, 2021

Assessing the UK’s ODA Focus on Poverty and Africa

The UK has historically prioritised poverty reduction in its aid spending, focusing finance where it is most needed. In this note, we assess the poverty focus of the UK’s bilateral official development assistance (ODA) over the past decade and compare this to other major donors. To do so, we examine the average income of the UK’s development partners (measured by GNI per capita, adjusted for purchasing power parity) which serves as a good indication of a country’s level of poverty. We also look at the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office’s (FCDO’s) most recent aid allocations as outlined in its annual report, to ascertain how the UK’s poverty focus might evolve in the future and how important Africa will remain in the UK’s aid spending plans.

December 6, 2021

Adolescent Girls’ Safety In and Out of School: Evidence on Physical and Sexual Violence from across Sub-Saharan Africa

Media coverage and country-level studies have highlighted violence—including sexual and physical abuse—against girls in schools as an important problem in need of immediate attention. This study characterizes rates of physical and sexual violence against adolescent girls and compares rates of violence against girls who are enrolled versus unenrolled in school, across countries that together represent 80 percent of sub-Saharan Africa’s girls aged 15-19. This study uses Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which capture basic data on physical and sexual violence, together with data from the Violence Against Children and Youth Surveys (VACS) in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which capture a wider array of sexual abuses and the location where the violence took place.

An image of the case study
November 19, 2021

From Displacement to Development: How Kenya Can Create Shared Growth by Facilitating Economic Inclusion for Refugees

Since the early 1990s, Kenya has hosted hundreds of thousands of refugees from across East Africa. Despite instances of refoulement, restrictions, and repeated threats from the government to shut down camps and deny other rights, large numbers of asylum seekers have found refuge in Kenya; some 490,000 refugees and asylum seekers live there today. But despite Kenya’s relatively generous policy for providing refuge, refugees in Kenya face many barriers to economic inclusion.

November 18, 2021

The Journey to Universal Health Coverage

Since 2018, the government of Kenya has worked on a series of policies and pilots to support the implementation of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) by 2022. UHC ensures that all individuals and communities receive the health services they need without suffering financial hardship.

An image of the policy paper.
October 13, 2021

Convergence, Development, and Energy-Intensive Infrastructure: Getting Africa to High-Income Status

The structural changes in an economy that accompany its growth to high-income status have been predictable in Europe, the United States, and Asia, characterized by declining employment in agriculture and rising levels of urbanization driven by jobs in the modern industrial sector. As agricultural productivity rises, the share of people employed in agriculture declines, and both urbanization and employment in manufacturing increase.

Screenshot of the Note Cover
August 12, 2021

Malaria Case Management in the Private Sector in Africa: A Call for Action to Identify Sustainable Solutions

Over the past two decades, partnerships between bilateral and multilateral funders, philanthropy, national governments, and the private sector have substantially increased global access to effective malaria treatment. Nevertheless, further action on malaria case management is needed to meet global targets for reduced malaria morbidity and mortality.

An image of the policy paper.
July 28, 2021

Identifying Binding Constraints on Digital Payment Services in Ethiopia: An Application of a Decision Tree Framework

While several comparable countries in sub-Saharan Africa have seen a significant increase in financial inclusion, mainly driven by digital financial services, Ethiopia still performs poorly. Even digital payment and transfer services, which lower-income and less literate segments of the population could benefit from, are rarely used.

Getnet Alemu , Tadele Ferde and Alejandro Fiorito
The cover of the brief
July 19, 2021

Why Europe Should Build Legal Migration Pathways with Nigeria

The youth population within Nigeria is rapidly increasing, but despite their high levels of education and skills, many are struggling to find meaningful work opportunities at home. At the same time, Europe’s working-age population is declining, resulting in employers in these countries facing large and persistent skill shortages within a range of mid-skill professions. This brief focuses on the first part of this equation, the why: understanding the opportunity that lies before us to better link the labor markets of Nigeria and Europe and the innovation that could do just that.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
Cover of the report
July 19, 2021

Expanding Legal Migration Pathways from Nigeria to Europe: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain

This report, a joint production between the World Bank and the Center for Global Development (CGD), outlines how the Global Skill Partnership model could be used to meet needs on both sides. It explores the growing youth unemployment rate in Nigeria, the increasing emigration pressure, and the structures that have been set up to manage this movement. It also explores the large skill shortages persistent within Europe, its migration management relationship with Africa, and the potential positive impacts of opening new legal migration pathways. It creates a framework with which to explore potential sectors and partner countries for the implementation of the Global Skill Partnership model, providing practical steps that governments can follow.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Information, Communications, and Technology (ICT) between Nigeria and Europe

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the ICT sector. It explores the existing digital and migration ecosystems in Nigeria and four European countries—Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Lithuania—providing practical recommendations for how a targeted skilled migration pathway could be used to boost economic growth in both markets.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Nursing between Nigeria and the UK

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the health care sector. It explores how the model could be used to foster ethical and sustainable health worker migration between Nigeria and the United Kingdom, improving training and health management infrastructure while increasing the stock of health workers in both countries.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Construction between Nigeria and Germany

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the construction sector. It explores how the model could be used to increase the construction skills of potential migrants within Nigeria, with some moving to Germany to take advantage of recent legislative shifts there to foster more vocationally trained migration.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator

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