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An image of a younger woman delivering groceries to an older woman during COVID.
August 2, 2021

Gender in the MDB Social Protection Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Recent work by the CGD researchers through the COVID-19 Gender and Development Initiative suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted women particularly severely, disproportionately affecting their paid and unpaid work, income, and food security, while also exacerbating the risk of gender-based violence. In response to the pandemic, multilateral development banks (MDBs) rapidly expanded their financing across a range of areas, including health and social protection, but little is known regarding whether new operations have been designed to address the crisis’ disproportionate impacts on women.

An image of humanitarian aid being unloaded from a plane.
July 29, 2021

Financing the Global Humanitarian Public Good: Opportunities for Change

On July 7, CGD convened a private, online, high-level roundtable of 15 major humanitarian donors, multilateral agencies, and NGO leaders under the Chatham House Rule to discuss humanitarian financing challenges and four proposals to reform the humanitarian business model. This note explores what was discussed, and what we can learn about the future of humanitarian reform.

Rose Worden , Patrick Saez and Claus Sorensen
An image of the paper.
July 28, 2021

Binding Constraints on Digital Financial Inclusion in Indonesia: An Analysis Using the Decision Tree Approach

Despite the concerted efforts of the Indonesian government to increase financial inclusion and the e-commerce–led growth of digital payment services, a large proportion of the country’s population remains financially excluded. Much of the growth and innovation has mainly benefited those already financially included. To understand this outcome, we use the decision tree approach developed by Claessens and Rojas-Suárez (2020), focusing on one of the products with the largest potential to increase financial inclusion in the country: e-money.

Firman Witoelar , Teguh Yudo Wicaksono and Carlos Mangunsong
An image of the policy paper.
July 28, 2021

Searching for the Binding Constraint to Digital Financial Inclusion in Pakistan: A Decision Tree Approach

Over the last decade, Pakistan has seen improvements in the coverage of its networks of bank branches, ATMs, and mobile money agents. However, the country is lagging behind comparator countries when it comes to the financial inclusion of its population; according to the latest estimates, barely 20 percent are currently included. By using the Claessens and Rojas-Suarez (2020) decision tree methodology, this paper assesses the potential demandand supply-side constraints limiting the usage of digital payment services to identify which constraints are binding

Imran Khan and Dr. Karrar Hussain Jaffar
An image of the policy paper.
July 28, 2021

A Decision Tree for Digital Payment Services: The Case of Mexico

This paper explores the reasons why digital payment services in Mexico are used to a much lower extent than would be expected considering the country’s level of development and the authorities’ efforts to expand these types of services during the past two decades.

Ivonne Acevedo and Miguel Székely
An image of the policy paper.
July 28, 2021

Identifying Binding Constraints on Digital Payment Services in Ethiopia: An Application of a Decision Tree Framework

While several comparable countries in sub-Saharan Africa have seen a significant increase in financial inclusion, mainly driven by digital financial services, Ethiopia still performs poorly. Even digital payment and transfer services, which lower-income and less literate segments of the population could benefit from, are rarely used.

Getnet Alemu , Tadele Ferde and Alejandro Fiorito
Policy Paper 217
July 22, 2021

Social Assistance and Information in the Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Crisis: Lessons from a Household Survey in India

Together with a lockdown and an information campaign, India’s early response to the Covid-19 pandemic included the launch of PMGKY, a major social protection package. This built on previous digital investments including in direct benefit transfer to financial accounts as well as on several established programs. The paper reports on the implementation of PMGKY, based on a household survey conducted 4-6 weeks after the lockdown and launch of the program. PMGKY successfully delivered benefits to millions of households, including food rations. At the same time, in spite of the information campaign, people did not always realize that payments had been delivered into their accounts while some also faced logistical difficulties in reaching cash-out points because of the severe disruption related to the pandemic and the lockdown.

July 20, 2021

Exploring How the US International Development Finance Corporation Can Support Health Sector Investments: Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty?

Health sector investments present an opportunity for the US International Development Finance Corporation (DFC), under the Biden-Harris administration, to demonstrate meaningful global leadership and refocus on its development mandate, driving broader health benefits and contributing to global economic recovery.

Cover of working paper 589
July 20, 2021

Three New Estimates of India’s All-Cause Excess Mortality during the COVID-19 Pandemic

India lacks an authoritative estimate of the death toll from the COVID-19 pandemic. We report excess mortality estimates from three different data sources from the pandemic’s start through June 2021. Estimating COVID-deaths with statistical confidence may prove elusive. But all estimates suggest that the death toll from the pandemic is likely to be an order of magnitude greater than the official count of 400,000; they also suggest that the first wave was more lethal than is believed.

Cover of the report
July 19, 2021

Expanding Legal Migration Pathways from Nigeria to Europe: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain

This report, a joint production between the World Bank and the Center for Global Development (CGD), outlines how the Global Skill Partnership model could be used to meet needs on both sides. It explores the growing youth unemployment rate in Nigeria, the increasing emigration pressure, and the structures that have been set up to manage this movement. It also explores the large skill shortages persistent within Europe, its migration management relationship with Africa, and the potential positive impacts of opening new legal migration pathways. It creates a framework with which to explore potential sectors and partner countries for the implementation of the Global Skill Partnership model, providing practical steps that governments can follow.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
The cover of the brief
July 19, 2021

Why Europe Should Build Legal Migration Pathways with Nigeria

The youth population within Nigeria is rapidly increasing, but despite their high levels of education and skills, many are struggling to find meaningful work opportunities at home. At the same time, Europe’s working-age population is declining, resulting in employers in these countries facing large and persistent skill shortages within a range of mid-skill professions. This brief focuses on the first part of this equation, the why: understanding the opportunity that lies before us to better link the labor markets of Nigeria and Europe and the innovation that could do just that.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Information, Communications, and Technology (ICT) between Nigeria and Europe

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the ICT sector. It explores the existing digital and migration ecosystems in Nigeria and four European countries—Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Lithuania—providing practical recommendations for how a targeted skilled migration pathway could be used to boost economic growth in both markets.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Nursing between Nigeria and the UK

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the health care sector. It explores how the model could be used to foster ethical and sustainable health worker migration between Nigeria and the United Kingdom, improving training and health management infrastructure while increasing the stock of health workers in both countries.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Construction between Nigeria and Germany

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the construction sector. It explores how the model could be used to increase the construction skills of potential migrants within Nigeria, with some moving to Germany to take advantage of recent legislative shifts there to foster more vocationally trained migration.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
Melting arctic sea ice
July 15, 2021

The Role of US Aid in Tackling Climate Change: Context and Questions for USAID and MCC

After four years of neglect from the White House under President Trump—and declines in direct funding—climate has (re)emerged as a centerpiece of US global engagement and US development policy more specifically, as policymakers seek to support emerging economies to meet economic growth goals in a sustainable way.

In the following sections, we outline the Biden-Harris administration’s recent climate commitments and their implications for US bilateral aid, situate these within the context of the recent past, and discuss several questions USAID and MCC will face as they seek to refine and implement their new climate strategies.

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