Ideas to Action:

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An image of the working paper.
October 14, 2021

Labour Mobility with Vocational Skill: Australian Demand and Pacific Supply

How many immigrants with less than university education, for a given immigration quota, maximise economic output? The answer is simple—zero—in the canonical model of the labour market, where the marginal product of a university-educated immigrant is always higher. We build an alternative model, following Jones (2005), in which national production occurs through a set of Leontief production functions that shift over time with technological change.

An image of the policy paper.
October 14, 2021

A Pacific Skills Visa: Improving Opportunities for Skilled Migration Throughout the Pacific Region

The demand for skills exceeds supply, both within the Pacific Islands and the high-income countries of the Pacific Rim. Enhancing skilled migration therefore has the potential to generate large economic gains. The Global Skill Partnership is a migration model that can support such mutually beneficial mobility by moving training into the country of origin. In this paper, we outline its regional application to the Pacific.

Cover of the report
July 19, 2021

Expanding Legal Migration Pathways from Nigeria to Europe: From Brain Drain to Brain Gain

This report, a joint production between the World Bank and the Center for Global Development (CGD), outlines how the Global Skill Partnership model could be used to meet needs on both sides. It explores the growing youth unemployment rate in Nigeria, the increasing emigration pressure, and the structures that have been set up to manage this movement. It also explores the large skill shortages persistent within Europe, its migration management relationship with Africa, and the potential positive impacts of opening new legal migration pathways. It creates a framework with which to explore potential sectors and partner countries for the implementation of the Global Skill Partnership model, providing practical steps that governments can follow.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
The cover of the brief
July 19, 2021

Why Europe Should Build Legal Migration Pathways with Nigeria

The youth population within Nigeria is rapidly increasing, but despite their high levels of education and skills, many are struggling to find meaningful work opportunities at home. At the same time, Europe’s working-age population is declining, resulting in employers in these countries facing large and persistent skill shortages within a range of mid-skill professions. This brief focuses on the first part of this equation, the why: understanding the opportunity that lies before us to better link the labor markets of Nigeria and Europe and the innovation that could do just that.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Information, Communications, and Technology (ICT) between Nigeria and Europe

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the ICT sector. It explores the existing digital and migration ecosystems in Nigeria and four European countries—Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Lithuania—providing practical recommendations for how a targeted skilled migration pathway could be used to boost economic growth in both markets.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Construction between Nigeria and Germany

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the construction sector. It explores how the model could be used to increase the construction skills of potential migrants within Nigeria, with some moving to Germany to take advantage of recent legislative shifts there to foster more vocationally trained migration.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
July 19, 2021

A Global Skill Partnership in Nursing between Nigeria and the UK

This case study is one of three in a recent report by CGD and the World Bank, outlining how CGD’s Global Skill Partnership model could be applied to boost the number of skilled professionals in Nigeria and Europe. This piece focuses on the health care sector. It explores how the model could be used to foster ethical and sustainable health worker migration between Nigeria and the United Kingdom, improving training and health management infrastructure while increasing the stock of health workers in both countries.

Samik Adhikari , Michael Clemens , Helen Dempster and Nkechi Linda Ekeator
The cover of the paper
May 27, 2021

Ethical Recruitment of Health Workers: Using Bilateral Cooperation to Fulfill the World Health Organization’s Global Code of Practice

In this policy paper, we outline how the WHO defined a “critical shortage” of health workers, both for the original Code and for its newly published Health Workforce Support and Safeguards List. The paper then goes onto explore how countries of migrant destination and origin can (and should) design ethical and sustainable health worker migration partnerships that fulfil the requirements of the Code.

Cover of Working Paper 501
January 31, 2019

Measuring the Spatial Misallocation of Labor: The Returns to India-Gulf Guest Work in a Natural Experiment - Working Paper 501

‘Guest workers’ earn higher wages overseas on temporary low-skill employment visas. This wage gap can be used to measure gaps in the productivity of workers due to where they are, not who they are. This paper estimates the effects of guest work on Indian applicants to a construction job in the United Arab Emirates, where an economic crisis allocated guest work opportunities as-good-as-randomly among several thousand families. Guest work raised the return to poor families' labor by a factor of four, with little evidence of systematic fraud.

Cover of 'How Global Businesses Can Improve Refugee Labor Market Access—and Why They Should'
October 9, 2018

How Global Businesses Can Improve Refugee Labor Market Access—and Why They Should

Many of the world’s 25 million refugees spend years struggling to provide for themselves or contribute fully to their host economies because they are legally barred from working or owning businesses. Granting refugees formal labor market access unlocks a range of benefits—for refugees, hosts, and global businesses.

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