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August 19, 2009

Going Beyond Gender as Usual: Why and How Global HIV/AIDS Donors Can Do More for Women and Girls

Few people doubt that gender inequality influences the spread of HIV/AIDS, yet public health efforts tend to focus on changing individual behavior rather than addressing structural factors—social, economic, physical and political—that influence the spread and effects of HIV and AIDS. This brief shows how three of the biggest donors to global HIV/AIDS programs can go beyond their stated commitments to address gender inequality and more effectively combat HIV and AIDS.

Christina Droggitis , Nandini Oomman and David Wendt
August 19, 2009

Making Markets for Merit Goods: The Political Economy of Antiretrovirals - Working Paper 179

Before a 2006 UN Special Session proclaimed there should be universal access to antiretrovirals (ARV), the life-saving drugs were far too expensive for most people with AIDS. In a new CGD working paper, Ethan Kapstein and Josh Busby examine how activists transformed ARVs from expensive private goods into so-called merit goods—products that society agrees should be accessible to all. In a related blog post they discuss the implications of their analysis for AIDS and other global challenges.

READ THE BLOG | GO STRAIGHT TO THE WORKING PAPER

Ethan Kapstein and Josh Busby
August 12, 2009

Global Nutrition Institutions: Is There an Appetite for Change?

Undernutrition kills more than three million mothers and children annually, and millions more children suffer irreversible, long-term damage to their bodies and minds. Yet nutrition is too often a low priority for rich-world donors and even for governments in the most affected countries. A new CGD essay by Ruth Levine and Danielle Kuczynski shows why and offers two practical suggestions for improvement.

READ THE ESSAY

Ruth Levine and Danielle Kuczynski
June 29, 2009

Moving Beyond Gender as Usual

Gender inequality drives the HIV epidemic, increasing the burden on women and girls and undermining the global response to the disease. A new HIV/AIDS Monitor report finds that despite well-meaning language and admirable broad goals, three of the biggest HIV/AIDS funders have yet to translate their concern for women and girls into systematic, effective programming. The report shows how to make that happen.

Learn more

Kim Ashburn , Nandini Oomman , David Wendt and Steven Rosenzweig
Cover of Performance Incentives for Global Health: Potential and Pitfalls
June 15, 2009

Performance Incentives for Global Health: Potential and Pitfalls

Donor spending on global health has surged, yet for many poor people in developing countries even basic prevention and treatment remain elusive. CGD’s newest book, Performance Incentives for Global Health: Potential and Pitfalls, shows how modest payments in cash or kind can get more health from health care spending. Informed by case studies and the Working Group on Performance-Based Incentives, co-authors Rena Eichler and CGD vice president Ruth Levine tell how to design and implement effective incentive programs—and what to avoid.

Rena Eichler , Ruth Levine and the Performance-Based Incentives Working Group
June 2, 2009

Performance Incentives for Global Health: Potential and Pitfalls - Brief

Rena Eichler and Ruth Levine summarize the findings of their book, Performance Incentives for Global Health: Potential and Pitfalls. Through numerous case studies, they show that carefully designed and implemented performance-based incentive programs can improve developing country health care in many areas and strengthen overall health systems.

Rena Eichler and Ruth Levine
March 26, 2009

UNAIDS: Preparing for the Future

This report by the UNAIDS Leadership Transition Working Group argues that the new executive director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS should focus on a few essential tasks: promoting evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies, ensuring that UN agencies adequately support countries severely affected by HIV, and pressing rich-country governments to live up to their pledges to help poor countries respond to the epidemic.

UNAIDS Leadership Transition Working Group
February 26, 2009

AIDS Treatment in South Asia: Equity and Efficiency Arguments for Shouldering the Fiscal Burden When Prevalence Rates Are Low - Working Paper 161

Senior fellow Mead Over estimates the effect of AIDS on poverty in South Asia and analyzes public policy options to help the region’s predominantly private health care systems meet the challenge of treating AIDS. He finds that South Asian governments should play a larger role in AIDS treatment than in other aspects of health care, in the interest of both efficiency and equity.

January 29, 2009

Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health Instructor Guide

Since 2004, the Center for Global Development has been collecting success stories in global health – remarkable cases in which large-scale efforts to improve health in developing countries have succeeded – and releasing them in the book Millions Saved: Case Studies in Global Health (now printed in two editions, with a third edition expected in 2015). 

January 5, 2009

Pricing and Access: Lessons from Randomized Evaluations in Education and Health - Working Paper 158

The debate on user fees in health and education has been contentious, but until recently much of the evidence has been anecdotal. Does charging poor people for health and education services improve or impede access? CGD non-resident fellow Michael Kremer and co-author Alaka Holla survey the evidence from recent randomized evaluations across a variety of settings to find out. The verdict: higher prices decrease access.

Read the working paper

Alaka Holla and Michael Kremer
November 4, 2008

Tripping Over Health: U.S. Policy on Patents and Drug Access in Developing Countries (White House and the World Policy Brief)

The United States can play an important role in promoting global development while simultaneously advancing American interests and prosperity. Intellectual property (IP) rights, such as patents and copyrights, provide protection against unauthorized copying and are therefore fundamental to creating a policy environment conducive for innovation. But this protection creates challenges for developing countries by limiting access to needed products and by misaligning incentives for innovation. The next U.S. president should come down clearly in favor of a new policy that better balances public health needs in developing countries with private incentives for innovative activities.

Carsten Fink
September 5, 2008

Opportunities for Presidential Leadership on AIDS: From an "Emergency Plan" to a Sustainable Policy (White House and the World Policy Brief)

U.S. spending on global AIDS is widely seen as a significant foreign policy and humanitarian success, but this success contains the seeds of a future crisis. Treatment costs are set to escalate dramatically and new HIV infections continue to outpace the number of people receiving treatment. Three bad options thus loom ahead for U.S. foreign policy: indefinitely increase foreign assistance spending on an open-ended commitment, eliminate half of other foreign aid programs, or withdraw the medicine that millions of people depend upon to stay alive. CGD senior fellow Mead Over provides another option: implementing a sustainable policy that concentrates on prevention in order to drastically cut new infections while sustaining the reduction in AIDS-related deaths.

August 4, 2008

Seizing the Opportunity on AIDS and Health Systems

Donors spend billions of dollars to fight HIV/AIDS in developing countries, but poor integration between donors and host country health systems risks undermining international efforts to prevent and treat AIDS. In this analysis, CGD’s HIV/AIDS Monitor argues that donors need to pay more attention to their overall effect on health systems, finding that the big international donors often create duplicate AIDS-specific systems that competitively draw on the health resources of developing countries. The report recommends taking specific steps to more broadly improve health information systems, improve supply chain systems, and strengthen the health workforce.

Nandini Oomman , Michael Bernstein and Steven Rosenzweig

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