Assessing Performance-Based Payments for Forest Conservation: Six Successes, Four Worries, and Six Possibilities to Explore of the Guyana-Norway Agreement
In 2009, Guyana created a Low Carbon Development Strategy to develop economically while keeping its entire forest intact, and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Norway to receive performance-based payments in the tens of millions of dollars annually contingent upon holding nationwide deforestation to a near-zero rate. In mid-February, 2014, we visited Guyana as part of a three-country study to attempt to gain insights of value to the future expansion of performance-based payments in other countries and other sectors.
The US has an untapped opportunity to offer global leadership against drug resistance through the major global health programs it already supports, namely PEPFAR, the Global Fund, and the Presidents Malaria Imitative. In this memo, Victoria Fan and Amanda Glassman highlight considerations for Congress with respect to oversight of these key channels of US development assistance for health that greatly affect drug resistance.
Balancing Energy Access and Environmental Goals in Development Finance: The Case of the OPIC Carbon Cap
The international community has ambitious goals for responding to climate change and increasing global access to energy services. To date, these agendas have been viewed to be largely complementary. However, policy makers are now facing more explicit interactions between environment, energy, and economic and social development objectives and associated trade-offs.
Comparing the Incidence of Taxes and Social Spending in Brazil and the United States - Working Paper 360
We perform the first comprehensive fiscal incidence analyses in Brazil and the US, including direct cash and food transfers, targeted housing and heating subsidies, public spending on education and health, and personal income, payroll, corporate income, property, and expenditure taxes.
Basic economic theory suggests that as poor countries get richer, fewer people want to leave. This idea captivates policymakers in international aid and trade diplomacy. But a long research literature and recent data suggest something very different: Over the course of a “mobility transition”, emigration typically rises with economic development—at least until poor countries reach upper-middle income level, like Algeria or El Salvador. Emigration typically falls only as countries become even richer. This note measures the mobility transition in every decade since 1960, surveys 45 years of research on why it happens, and suggests five questions for further study.
The Millennium Challenge Corporation is a US agency that provides results-oriented assistance to low- and lower-middle income countries that exhibit strong performance on a number of measures of development. Among these measures is the Worldwide Governance Indicator for control of corruption. A country must score in the top half of its income group on control of corruption to pass the overall selection procedure. This paper examines the empirical underpinning of this “corruption hard hurdle.”
Published in Social Science & Medicine in January 2014.
Almost every country exhibits two important health financing trends: health spending per person rises and the share of out-of-pocket spending on health services declines.
On February 27th, senior fellow and Chief Operating Officer Todd Moss testified before the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Energy and Power regarding the US role in promoting international access to energy.
Scarcity without Leviathan: The Violent Effects of Cocaine Supply Shortages in the Mexican Drug War - Working Paper 356
Using the case of the cocaine trade in Mexico as a relevant and salient example, this paper shows that scarcity leads to violence in markets without third party enforcement.
Development as Diffusion: Manufacturing Productivity and Sub-Saharan Africa’s Missing Middle - Working Paper 357
We consider economic development of Sub-Saharan Africa from the perspective of slow convergence of productivity, both across sectors and across firms within sectors.
CGD convened experts in nutrition and/or innovative finance in Washington DC and London for a workshop on February 24th about Development Impact Bonds (DIBs).
From Maize to Haze: Agricultural Shocks and the Growth of the Mexican Drug Sector - Working Paper 355
We examine how commodity price shocks experienced by rural producers affect the drug trade in Mexico. Our analysis exploits exogenous movements in the Mexican maize price stemming from weather conditions in U.S. maize-growing regions, as well as export flows of other major maize producers. Using data on over 2,200 municipios spanning 1990-2010, we show that lower prices differentially increased the cultivation of both marijuana and opium poppies in municipios more climatically suited to growing maize.
Migration as a Strategy for Household Finance: A Research Agenda on Remittances, Payments, and Development - Working Paper 354
It is time to fundamentally reframe the research agenda on remittances, payments, and development. We describe many of the research questions that now dominate the literature and why they lead us to uninformative answers.
Development Impact Bonds (DIBs) are a new approach to designing and funding development programs that bring together governments, donors, private investors, and non-profit and private sector service delivery organizations to deliver results which society values.
This paper analyzes the potential for regional collective action in Latin America in the areas of finance, trade and infrastructure.
Migration from Mexico to the United States has traditionally been predominantly low-skill. But in recent years the skilled fraction of Mexican workers in the United States has grown substantially.
India’s Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies: A Macro Assessment Testimony before the United States International Trade Commission
Arvind Subramanian testified before the United States International Trade Commission on February 12, 2014. Subramanian shared his thoughts on India’s trade, investment, and industrial policies and offered policy recommendations from both an economic and strategic perspective.