This note looks at cumulative historical emissions but adds two adjustments to quantify countries’ liability for climate damage. First, we use recent thinking on carbon prices to cost emissions. Second, we allow that cost to fall for historic emissions and include a cut-off to reflect the rising certainty of climate damage.
Evaluating Contraception for Inclusion in Health Benefits Packages: Conceptual Issues and a Proposed Analytical Framework
As low- and middle-income countries advance towards universal health coverage (UHC), the family planning community increasingly recognizes that inclusion within health benefits packages (HBP)—a cornerstone of UHC policy—may be essential for the sustainability of family planning financing.
In the context of an ongoing debate around the role of aid in middle income countries, it is worth revisiting the discussion around aid allocation in general.
This brief originally appeared on the International Center for Research on Women's website.
Global e-commerce sales surged to US$25.6 trillion in 2018, up 8 percent from 2017. Leading the way are China (US$1.5 trillion), the United States (US$600 billion), and the United Kingdom (US$135 billion) holding the top three spots respectively. Yet Africa, with 17 percent of the world’s population, still lags behind both in e-commerce sales and the use of mobile money for online purchases. Why is this a problem?
We develop screens and principles designed to maximise the impact of aid, especially in richer recipients. All else equal, a dollar spent in the poorest countries will have a larger impact on well-being than a dollar spent in richer countries, so ODA should be concentrated in those countries.
This study draws on a randomly assigned pilot of a community implemented cash transfer program targeted to households with low socioeconomic status in Tanzania to examine the educational impacts of cash transfers for children facing different challenges. We find that on average, being assigned to receive cash transfers significantly boosts children’s school participation and primary completion rates. But we provide suggestive evidence that these gains are unequally distributed across children.
This case study is part of the “Let Them Work” initiative by Refugees International (RI) and the Center for Global Development (CGD). It outlines the barriers Venezuelans face in Peru to economic inclusion, the impacts of these barriers, and the steps that the Government of Peru, international organizations, donors, and the private sector could take to overcome them.
This policy paper, part of the “Let Them Work” initiative, outlines how the Government of Peru, donors, international organizations, and NGOs can address and overcome these barriers and promote economic inclusion.
Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) including the International Finance Corporation (IFC) tend to look at their development impact using project-level indicators of outputs and employment impacts.
ODA in Turmoil: Why Aid Definitions and Targets Will Come Under Pressure in the Pandemic Age, and What Might be Done About It?
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, official development assistance (ODA) remains an essential, though often criticised, form of external financing for developing countries.
This paper analyzes the role of political variables in the implementation of structural tax reforms in 45 emerging market and low-income economies during 2000-2015.
Malaria Case Management After the Affordable Medicines Facility for Malaria (AMFm): Availability, Quality, and Market Share for ACTs in Kenya’s Private Pharmacies
Between 2011 and 2016, the Affordable Medicines Facility-Malaria (AMFm) subsidy program substantially increased access to WHO prequalified artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) through Africa’s private sector pharmacies and drug-sellers. While the program was rigorously and extensively evaluated, little is known about private-sector case management of malaria in the period since its discontinuation.
Spending needs for financing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in developing countries are large and cannot be covered by external flows alone. This has made it imperative for these countries to raise more resources domestically over time—an urgency accentuated by the fiscal impact of COVID-19, possibly with a long-lasting impact on revenue-generating capacity.
This paper reviews data on private development finance flows in poor countries, identifies the lessons and questions that should shape future efforts to mobilize more finance, and develops proposals to strengthen performance.
Countries restrict the overall extent of international travel and migration to balance the expected costs and benefits of mobility. Given the ever-present threat of new, future pandemics, how should permanent restrictions on mobility respond?
Even before the coronavirus crisis, since 2011 debt payments have grown rapidly for lower income countries. In this paper we analyse debt payments for 63 countries with figures available from the IMF and World Bank.
Strengthening Approaches to Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding at the UN and IFIs: Key Ideas and Recommendations
All three of the recent UN secretary-general reports on peacebuilding and sustaining peace (2018, 2019, and 2020) take note of the need to enhance collaboration between the UN—not only its development system but also its peace and security and humanitarian arms—with international financial institutions (IFIs), namely the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF).