France

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2006 Results

Aid

What it measures

Aid quality is just as important as aid quantity, so the CDI measures gross aid as a share of GNI adjusted for various quality factors: it subtracts debt service, penalizes “tied” aid that makes recipients spend aid only on donor goods and services, rewards aid to poor but relatively uncorrupt recipients, and penalizes overloading poor governments with many small projects.

France Overall
  • Score: 4.1
  • Rank: 9
France Strengths
  • High net aid volume as a share of the economy (0.41%; rank: 6)
  • Small share of tied or partially tied aid (6%; rank: 7)
France Weaknesses
  • Selectivity: large share of aid to relatively less poor and less democratic governments (rank: 19)
  • Small amount of private charitable giving attributable to tax policy (rank by share of GNI: 13)



Trade

What it measures

International trade has been a force for economic development for centuries. The CDI measures trade barriers in rich countries against exports from developing countries.

France Overall
  • Score: 6.0
  • Rank: 10
France Strengths
  • Low barriers against textiles (rank: 2)
  • Low barriers against apparel (rank: 3)
France Weaknesses
  • High protection of agricultural commodities (rank: 11)



Investment

What it measures

Rich-country investment in poorer countries can transfer technologies, upgrade management and create jobs. The CDI includes a checklist of policies that support healthy investment in developing countries.

France Overall

  • Score: 5.9
  • Rank: 14
France Strengths
  • Particularly active in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and in the G-8 Anti-Corruption and Transparency Action Plan
  • Employs tax-sparing arrangements to prevent double taxation of corporate profits earned abroad
France Weaknesses
  • Does not screen projects for social impacts through national political risk agency
  • Imposes restrictions on pension fund investments in emerging markets
  • Does not provide official assistance to set up investment promotion agencies in developing countries
  • Does not provide official assistance in identifying direct investment opportunities
  • Does not provide official support for outflows of portfolio investment



Migration

What it measures

The movement of people from poor to rich countries provides unskilled immigrants with jobs, income and knowledge. This increases the flow of money sent home by migrants abroad and the transfer of skills when the migrants return.

France Overall
  • Score: 2.6
  • Rank: 16
France Strengths
  • Large share of foreign students from developing countries in 2003 (82%; rank: 5)
France Weaknesses
  • Only a small increase during the 1990s in the number of unskilled immigrants from developing countries living in France (rank by share of population: 17)
  • Small number of immigrants from developing countries entering France in 2003 (rank by share of population: 17)



Environment

What it measures

Rich countries use a disproportionate amount of scarce resources, and poor countries are most vulnerable to global warming and ecological deterioration, so the CDI measures the impact of policies on the global climate, fisheries and biodiversity.

France Overall
  • Score: 6.1
  • Rank: 11
France Strengths
  • Low greenhouse gas emissions rate per capita (9.5 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent; rank: 4)
  • Large decline in greenhouse gas emissions rate in 1999–2003 (average annual growth rate/PPP GDP, –2.4%; rank: 8)
  • High gas taxes (rank: 7)
France Weaknesses
  • Large number of endangered species imports (rank: 18)



Security

What it measures

Since security is a prerequisite for development, the CDI rewards contributions to internationally sanctioned peacekeeping operations and forcible humanitarian interventions, rewards military protection of global sea lanes, and penalizes arms exports to poor and undemocratic governments.

France Overall
  • Score: 0.5
  • Rank: 21
France Strengths
  • Military ships stationed in sea lanes that are important to international trade (rank by share of GDP: 2)
  • Significant financial and personnel contributions to internationally sanctioned peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions (overall contribution rank over last 10 years by share of GDP: 9)
France Weaknesses
  • Arms exports to poor and undemocratic governments (rank by share of GDP: 20)



Technology

What it measures

Rich countries contribute to development through the creation and dissemination of new technologies. The CDI captures this by measuring government support for R&D and penalizing strong intellectual property rights regimes that limit the dissemination of new technologies to poor countries.

France Overall
  • Score: 6.3
  • Rank: 1
France Strengths
  • High government expenditure on R&D (rank by share of GDP (rank: 2)
  • Revokes patents that are not used by the filers so that others may use the ideas freely
France Weaknesses
  • Large share of government R&D expenditure on defense (23%; rank: 18)