Wednesday, November 18, 2015 - 12:30pm
In this CGD Europe Sandwich Seminar, Osea Giuntella presents results from a paper with Catia Nicodemo and Carlos Vargas Silva on the effects of immigration on waiting times in the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Linking administrative records from the Hospital Episode Statistics (2003-2012) with immigration data drawn from the UK Labour Force Survey, they find that immigration reduced waiting times for outpatient referrals and did not have significant effects on waiting times in Accident and Emergency (A&E) and elective care.
These results are explained by the fact that immigration increases the chance that natives moved elsewhere and that immigrants tend to be healthier than the natives moving to different areas. On the contrary, they show that outpatient waiting times tend to increase in areas where native internal migrants moved into. Finally, they find evidence that immigration increased waiting times for outpatient referrals in more deprived areas outside London. The increase in average waiting times in more deprived areas is concentrated in the years immediately following the 2004 EU enlargement and vanished three to 4 years later.
Wednesday, November 18, 2015 - 9:00am
How can we bridge the gap between what we know and what we do when investing in women and girls? The Birdsall House Conference Series on Women brings leading researchers on women’s empowerment in the fields of development economics, behavioral economics, and political economy together with policymakers who can convert findings to action.
Tuesday, November 17, 2015 - 4:00pm
“Sustainability” is not just an environmental concept. It also applies to market outcomes. No society has figured out how to allocate scarce economic resources efficiently on behalf of society’s needs without using market processes. But markets sometimes fail in this process, especially when hunger, poverty, income inequality and political voice are at stake. Peter Timmer’s book Food Security and Scarcity: Why Ending Hunger is So Hard, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press in conjunction with the Center for Global Development, provides clear guidelines on how to analyze government policies and market structures in order to reduce hunger in a sustainable fashion.
Tuesday, November 17, 2015 - 10:30am
Multiple crises in the Latin American past, including severe banking crises, have been accompanied by sharp and persistent devaluations. This time around, the impressively large currency depreciations (over 50 percent in some countries) resulting from the ongoing commodity price shock and volatile international capital markets have resulted in contraction in output growth (and even recession in Brazil), but no financial crisis. Why not? And can Latin America muddle through this episode of adverse international conditions and avoid the severe financial crises that distinguished the region in the 1980s and 1990s? Or will cumulative shocks eventually expose domestic financial vulnerabilities and cause severe crises to ensue?
Thursday, November 12, 2015 - 4:00pm
Countering terrorism is and must remain a critical national security priority for the United States and countries around the world. Anti–money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) laws are key tools in these efforts. However, there are rising concerns that these efforts are increasingly hurting emerging market economies. And worse, some of the efforts to combat money laundering and terror financing may be having the opposite effect than intended—driving financial flows underground, making them less transparent and more susceptible to being used for nefarious purposes. How should we think about and address these unintended effects? A new CGD report (to be released at this event) tries to answer this question and will be the focus of the panel discussion that follows Dr. Sheets’ opening remarks.
Wednesday, November 11, 2015 - 2:00pm
President Obama’s trip to Kenya earlier this year elicited charges from within the country that the United States was seeking to impose LGBT rights on unwilling Kenyans. This sentiment has found support among political leaders in many developing countries, who have sanctioned the persecution of sexual minorities for political gain while raising the specter of a new colonialism that would seek to impose Western values on their traditional cultures.
But beyond media reports highlighting cases of abuse and persecution in various countries, what do we know about the state of LBGT rights in the developing world more generally? And in the face of abuse, what can Washington do about it?
Following featured remarks from former US Representative Barney Frank, an expert panel will address these issues from the perspective of policymakers, researchers, and development practitioners.
Monday, November 9, 2015 - 10:00am
What is the best way to help the world’s poorest and most vulnerable?
The current humanitarian aid system - based around the delivery of physical supplies to those in need - is in dire need of change to reflect a simple reality: more people are in need and for longer. Evidence points to how aid given as cash can be more efficient, more transparent and better for recipients than traditional aid-in-kind. But cash and vouchers remain just 6% of all humanitarian aid.
This event takes as its starting point the new CGD and ODI report by the High Level Panel on Humanitarian Cash Transfers ‘Doing Cash Differently: How Cash Transfers Can Transform Humanitarian Aid’. It will ask provocative questions: why is it taking so long to move towards a more cash-based system? What are the innovations needed in scaling up cash on the ground? What role can private sector companies play? How will cash impact aid agencies?
Thursday, November 5, 2015 - 8:45am
At the first-ever Girl Summit last year in London, governments, organizations, and advocates from around the world promised to end child marriage globally. The U.S. joined other governments in pledging to step up efforts.
Wednesday, November 4, 2015 - 2:00pm
Duncan Green reflects on the future of international aid and presents some advance thinking on his forthcoming book, How Change Happens, (OUP October 2016). He'll argue that theories of change are not just 'logframes on steroids', another reductionist toolkit destined to annoy aid practitioners around the world, but a fundamentally new way of understanding and influencing development.
Tuesday, November 3, 2015 - 3:00pm
A legal identity is the first step to claiming many basic rights. Yet 750m children around the world do not even have a birth certificate. They are denied the chance to play an active and productive role – and to raise themselves and their families out of poverty.
SDG Target 16.9 requires states to ‘provide legal identity for all, including birth registration’. Yet legal identification is much more than a goal in itself: it is critical in achieving at least 10 other SDGs from financial inclusion to gender equality to tackling climate change.
With legal identity becoming a priority for governments around the world, this high level event considers the implications for, and experiences of, governments in the developed and developing world and examines the potential for biometric technology to help find the missing millions and achieve development goals.
Thursday, October 22, 2015 - 12:00pm
How does civil war violence affect female political participation? Qualitative evidence suggests that new opportunities for women as political actors may arise during wartime. But these claims have not been systematically evaluated. In this paper, Omar García-Ponce uses rich micro-level data to investigate the legacies of Peru’s Shining Path insurgency on women’s engagement in local politics. He finds that electoral gender quotas have been more successful in conflict-affected areas. However, the positive effects of violence on female political participation are reversed in specific areas that experienced sexual violence. He also provides evidence that these effects persist across generations.
Wednesday, October 21, 2015 - 3:00pm
The slow global response to the Ebola crisis in West Africa suggests that important gaps exist in donor financing for key global functions, such as strengthening of outbreak preparedness and support for research and development (R&D) to fight the diseases of poverty. What do we know about how much health aid is devoted to such global functions?
CGD will host Lawrence H. Summers and Dean Jamison as they discuss a novel, policy-oriented approach to categorizing donor funding for health. This new approach, which combines official development assistance (ODA) for health with additional donor spending on R&D for diseases of poverty, reveals what functions aid is currently serving and where gaps may lie in the financing of key global functions in health.
After remarks, speakers will discuss the implications of these gaps for future donor financing, how a “grand convergence” in health can be achieved by 2035 and how to prevent future global health crises.
Wednesday, October 21, 2015 - 12:30pm
Assistant Professor in Economics, University of Warwick
Research Fellow, CGD Europe
Tuesday, October 20, 2015 - 9:30am
The sizable increase in income inequality in many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distributional issues to the top of the policy agenda. The challenge for many governments is to address concerns over rising inequality while simultaneously promoting economic efficiency and more robust growth.
The event’s discussion will center on Inequality and Fiscal Policy, a new book edited by Benedict Clements, Ruud de Mooij, Sanjeev Gupta, and Michael Keen of the International Monetary Fund. An important message of the book is that growth and equity are not necessarily at odds; with the appropriate mix of policy instruments and careful policy design, countries can in many cases achieve better distributional outcomes and improve economic efficiency. Country studies demonstrate the diversity of challenges and the differing capacity to address this issue more fundamentally.
Thursday, October 15, 2015 - 4:00pm
With nations signed up to the Global Goals for Sustainable Development, and looking ahead to an historic agreement on climate change in Paris, now is the time to underline the fundamental link between climate and development, and to identify practical solutions for both.CGD’s new report details how payment-for-performance in reducing tropical deforestation is a win-win for both climate and development. A distinguished panel of innovators, thought-leaders and implementers will discuss the findings of this major new work that address the twin questions of how to minimize climate change and increase development outcomes at the same time.
Thursday, October 8, 2015 - 2:30pm
Global financial resources for health have substantially increased over the period of the MDGs but are now steady or declining. Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries may not be able to keep up with demand for treatment needs, let alone other prevention services. In this context, there is need to make better use of existing funds (or do more with less), reallocating funds to the most effective mix of programs for a given epidemiological context across the range of disease areas affecting populations. The Optima team applies a practical and sophisticated technical approach to assist national decision-makers, program managers, and funding partners achieve maximum impact with the funding available for the country’s response to disease burdens and plan for sustainability. A global perspective and country case studies will be presented particularly in the area of HIV, along with description of the Optima approach.
CGD Invited Research Forum
Thursday, October 8, 2015 - 12:30pm
Why are the wide gaps in living standards between rural and urban areas in developing countries so persistent? The presence of amenities in rural areas is one explanation for why (even more) people don't move from impoverished rural areas to urban centers. In her new paper, Martina Kirchberger links data from geo-referenced household surveys on crime and mistrust, to satellite measures of pollution and data on population density. She shows significant pollution-population density gradients for China and India. In Africa, it does not seem to be the case that urban living is accompanied by tangible disamenities from pollution or crime. Nevertheless, there appears to be a breakdown in trusting relationships in urban areas, and this is one of the few variables that would provide support for a simple spatial equilibrium.
Tuesday, October 6, 2015 - 12:30pm
Do labor-intensive public works programs (PWPs) serve as an important social protection tools to supplement the income of poor households and improve public infrastructure? In their paper, Goldberg and coauthors conduct a unique nationally-representative evaluation of the Malawi Social Action Fund, Malawi's largest social protection program, using across- and within-village randomization to estimate the effects of the program on its stated objectives: food security and use of agricultural inputs.
Despite the commitment to the program and the substantial resources devoted to it, Goldberg and coauthors find no evidence that it improves food security, but that it actually generates negative spillover effects that reduce the food security of untreated households in two of the country's three geographic regions. Moreover, variations intended to improve the design of the program by shifting earnings opportunities to the country's lean season from harvest season do not generate positive impacts on food security.