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Databases and Networks

Databases

Surveillance Systems and Networks

General Bibliographic References

HIV-AIDS

Malaria

Tuberculosis (including resistance in patients co-infected with HIV and TB)

Other antimicrobial resistance

Databases

HIV/AIDS

  • Los Alamos HIV Resistance Mutation Database (Archived): A searchable compilation of mutations in HIV genes that confer resistance to antiretroviral drugs. It was created and maintained by staff at the University of Pittsburgh and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, but folded at the end of 2008 reportedly due to a lack of financing.
  • Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database: This public, curated database was designed to represent, store, and analyze data underlying HIV drug resistance, including correlations between genotypes and other data, such as treatment history or outcome. It is maintained by a team at the Stanford University Medical Center.

Malaria

  • WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) is a collaborative network that aims to meet the need for a comprehensive, global surveillance system that can provide early warning of antimalarial drug resistance. In this unique initiative, WWARN is developing a web-based platform that allows researchers from around the world to share data, which is converted to a common format to enlarge the available data pool and provide access to a more comprehensive intelligence source. In tandem, WWARN is developing interactive data analysis tools to support data visualization and cross-comparison between the standardized datasets.
  • WHO malaria database: This database was developed by WHO to inform a 2006 report on drug resistance in P. falciparum. The report itself committed WHO to maintaining the database over the long term. However, it is unclear whether the database will be made available beyond WHO.
  • Institut Pasteur International Network: Little information is available about this database, which appears to be managed by the Institut Pasteur facility in Cambodia. The Institut Pasteur network also runs a resistance surveillance program, which appears to cover several disease areas.

Tuberculosis

  • International TB Genotype Database: This is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular markers database, with only limited information on drug resistance patterns and patient characteristics. The database is maintained by the TB and Mycobacteria Unit of the Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe (a non-profit). Data are owned by the relevant researchers, but are freely available for query via the website.
  • WHO/TDR TB Specimen and Strain Bank: The specimen bank aims to support TB test development and evaluation, and contains specimens from patients investigated for TB across a diverse range of settings. The strain bank was developed primarily to support pharmaceutical R&D and includes approximately 216 strains donated by labs across the world, showing all possible patterns of resistance to four TB drugs.
  • Euro TB MDR-TB Project: This project houses a database containing both genotypic and epidemiological data from MDR-TB cases across the European region. Data are generated by research institutes and also submitted by quality-assured laboratories from at least 24 countries. See the MDR-TB surveillance tab at

Other antimicrobial resistance

  • ARInfoBank (Closed): This WHO database was scrapped due to the low quality of data coming in from developing countries and a lack of financial and human resources.

Surveillance Systems and Networks

HIV/AIDS

  • The Global HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Network (HIVResNet): A global advisory network of HIV drug resistance experts, established and managed by WHO in collaboration with the International AIDS Society. It maintains a surveillance system to measure HIV drug resistance among treated and untreated patients, and to build related capacity. It is anticipated that data shared through HIVResNet will aid the development of effective global and national strategies for HIV treatment and the prevention of drug resistance.
  • WHO HIVDR Global Laboratory Network: A network of laboratories designed to support HIVResNet.

Malaria

  • WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN): See ‘databases’ above.
  • Regional Networks: All these networks – which are operational and effective to varying extents, with several now absorbed by WWARN ­– aim to strengthen their regional information base on parasite drug sensitivity, to inform national malaria treatment policies. All were, or are still, managed by a small secretariat based in one country within the corresponding region. In a few cases, networks are linked to another program, for example RAVREDA and the USAID funded Amazon Malaria Initiative.

Tuberculosis

  • WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance: This project supports countries to conduct TB drug resistance surveys. Data are collected and reported regularly and are used to estimate the magnitude of TB drug resistance levels, monitor trends, evaluate the effectiveness of TB control programs, and inform national TB treatment policies.
  • The Supranational Laboratory Network (SRLN): The network is now part of the broader Global Laboratory Initiative (GLI) structure and supports national reference labs to conduct quality-assured drug susceptibility testing and provide data to the Global Project (above).

Other antimicrobial resistance

  • Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP): Established to undertake surveillance studies on antimicrobial resistance across the Asian region, ANSORP is now one of the world’s largest collaborative study groups working in this area, with 196 principal investigators, across 135 centers in 14 countries. It is coordinated by the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea. Current projects include those on community-acquired MRSA and hospital acquired infections, particularly pneumonia. The network also maintains the Asian Bacterial Bank, with more than 30,000 clinical isolates.
  • Latin American Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring/Surveillance Network: See Box 4.1 of this report for more detail.
  • European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS): A publicly funded European network of national surveillance systems, EARSS provides reference data on antimicrobial resistance for public health purposes. EARSS data can be accessed through an interactive database which allows user-friendly display of selected results in various downloadable formats, such as tables, figures, and maps. It is managed by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in The Netherlands.
  • Global Advisory on Antibiotic Resistance Data Project (GAARD): This is a  global public-private partnership involving the world’s largest independent surveillance systems tracking antimicrobial resistance, many of which are linked to major drug manufacturers. Through coordination of data collection and joint analyses, the project identifies emerging drug resistance trends among the world’s major infectious diseases. It is managed by the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, a US-based non-profit (with chapters in 60 countries – 30 in the developing world).
  • International Collaboration on Gonococci (ICG): This is a  voluntary, informal collaboration aiming to provide timely information to inform treatment for gonococcal disease by monitoring the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.ICG is coordinated by Professor John Tapsall at the University of New South Wales and supported by a web-based networking facility (membership required to gain access) provided by the Canadian public health system.
  • Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus (NARSA): This is a network of clinical and basic scientists from academia, industry, and public health. It aims to support cross-fertilization of biological, medical, and epidemiological research directed towards understanding resistance and other characteristics among staphylococci. NARSA is managed by Eurofins Medinet Inc., based in Virginia USA.
  • Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Network (ROAR): This  network facilitates the sharing of data and literature on commensal bacteria to improve understanding of their role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Network members include over 300 scientists from various disciplines in over 30 countries, who contribute to and use the ROAR database and moderated listserv. ROAR is managed by APUA (see above).
  • WHONET: The WHONET system is managed by a small team at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, USA, which designed freely downloadable software for labs to capture data on drug resistance. Most data are used locally, to inform treatment and infection control strategies, but can also be used to facilitate surveillance activities and appropriate policy responses at local, national, or regional level.

General Bibliographic References

HIV-AIDS

  • Several HIV drug resistance-specific publications on World Health Organization Website: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/drugresistance/en/
  • Bennett DE.  Preparing for HIV drug resistance in the developing world.  Issues Infect Dis.  Basel, Karger, 2010, vol 6, pp.154-170
  • Bennett D, RJ Camacho, D Otelea, DR Kuritzkes, H Fleury, M Kiuchi, W Heneine, R Kantor, MR Jordan, JM Schapiro, A-M Vandamme, P Sandstrom, CAB Boucher, D van de Vijver, S-Y Rhee, TF Liu, D Pillay and RW Shafer.  Drug Resistance Mutations for Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug-Resistance: 2009 Update.  PLoS One. March 2009, Volume 4, Issue 3.  Available online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004724
  • Blower S, E Bodine, J Kahn and W McFarland.  The antiretroviral rollout and drug-resistant HIV in Africa: insights from empirical data and theoretical models.  AIDS 2005; 19:  1-14.  Available online at http://www.semel.ucla.edu/biomedicalmodeling/pdf/article_aids_review_2005.pdf
  • Brugha R. Antiretroviral treatment in developing countries:  the peril of neglecting private providers.  BMJ Volume 326. 21 June 2003
  • Chaix ML, Msellati P, Rouet F et al. Efficacy of Highly Active Antiviral Therapy and Rate of Genotypic HIV-1 Drug Resistant Strains among HIV-infected Children Receiving Treatment at the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA, in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Africa. 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2005.
  • Chaix ML, Ekouevi DK, Peytavin G, et al. Persistance of nevirapine-resistant virus and pharmacokinetic analysis in women who received intrapartum NVP associated to a short course of  zidovudine (ZDV) to prevent perinatal HIV-1transmission: the Ditrame  Plus ANRS 1201/02 Study, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Antivir Ther 2004; 9:S176
  • Chantratita W, Jenwitheesuk E, Watitpun C et al. Prevalence of HIV-1 polymerase gene mutations in pre-treated patients in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002; 33(1):80- 4
  • Chesney MA. Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30(Suppl 2):S171–6
  • Cohen C, Nieto-Cisneros L, Zala C, et al.  Comparison of atazanavir with lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with prior protease inhibitor failure: A randomized multinational trial. Curr Med Res Opin 2005; 21(10):1683-92
  • Hirsch MS, Brun-Vezinet F, Clotet B, et al. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: 2003 recommendations of an International AIDS Society–USA Panel. Clin Infect Dis 2003
  • Hosseinipour MC, Neuhann FH, Kanyama CC, Namarika DC, Weigel R, et al. (2006) Lessons learned from a paying antiretroviral therapy service in the public health sector at kamuzu central hospital, Malawi: 1-year experience. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 5: 103–108.
  • Johnson JA, J-F Li, X Wei, J Lipscomb, D Irlbeck, C Craig, A Smith, DE Bennett, M Monsour, P Sandstrom, ER Lanier and W Heneine.  Minority HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations are present in antiretroviral treatment-naïve population and associate with reduced treatment efficacy.  PLoS Medicine July 2008, Volume 5, Issue 7.  Available online http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0050158
  • Kent DM, McGrath D, Ioannidis JP, Bennish ML. Finding suitable monitoring strategies for antiretroviral therapy in resource poor settings: setting the research agenda. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(suppl 1):S13-S24.Kuritzkes, D.R. “HIV Resistance: frequency, testing, mechanisms,” Topics in HIV Medicine: Volume 15 Issue 5 November/December 2007, International AIDS Society
  • Maglione M, Geotz M, Wang Z, Wagner G, Hilton L, Carter J, Tringale C, Newberry S, Shekelle P. Antiretroviral (ARV) Drug Resistance in the Developing World. Evidence Report/ Technology Assessment No. 156. (Prepared by the Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center, under Contract No. 290-02-0003). AHRQ Publication No. 07-E014. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. September 2007
  • Novak RM, Chen L, MacArthur RD, et al. Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naïve patients: implications for routine resistance screening before initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40:468–74.Richman DD, Morton S.C., Wrin T et al. The prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in the United States. AIDS 2004; 18:1393-401.
  • Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J, et al. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133:21–30
  • Rosen S, Fox MP, Gill CJ. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Med 2007
  • Sagir A, M Oette, R Kaiser, M Däumer, G Fätkenheurer, JK Rockstroh, H Knechten, G Schmutz, M Hower, J Emmelkamp, H Pfister and D Häussinger on behalf of the RESINA Study Team.  Trends of prevalence of primary HIV drug resistance in Germany.  Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2007) 60, 843-848
  • Saple DG, Vaidya SB, Kharkar RD, Pandey VP, Vedrevu R, Ramnanai JP et al. Causes of ARV failure in India [abstract WePeB5860]. Proceedings of the 14th International AIDS conference, 7-12 July 2002, Barcelona
  • Smith D, N Moini, R Pesano, et al. “Clinical utility of HIV standard genotyping among antiretroviral-naive individuals with unknown duration of infection.” Clinical Infectious Diseases 44(3): 456-458. February 1, 2007.
  • UK Group on Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance.  Time trends in primary resistance to HIV drugs in the United Kingdom: multicentre observational study.  BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38665.534595.55 (published 18 November 2005)

Malaria

  • Alexander N, C Sutherland, C Roper, B Cisse and D Schellenberg.  Modelling the impact of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria on selection pressure for drug resistance.  Malaria Journal.  2007, 6:9.  Available online at http://www.malariajournal.com/content/6/1/9
  • Allan R, Doull L, van der Wijk J. Cost recovery and malaria treatment in emergencies.  The Health Exchange.  December 2001. P. 15-9
  • Bate R, P Coticelli, R Tren and A Attaran.  Antimalarial drug quality in the most severely malarious parts of Africa – A six country study.  PLoS One. May 2008, Volume 3, Issue 5.  Available online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002132
  • Cell. 1997. Global spread of chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum. [cover graph.] 91 (5)
  • Nosten, F., M. van Vugt, R. Price, C. Luxemburger, K. L. Thway, A. Brockman, and others. 2000. “Effects of Artesunate–Mefloquine Combination on Incidence of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria and Mefloquine Resistance in Western Thailand: A Prospective Study.” Lancet 356 (9226): 297–302
  • O’Meara WP, DL Smith and FE McKenzie.  Potential impact of intermittent prevention treatment (IPT) on spread of drug-resistant malaria.  PLoS Medicine May 2006, volume 3, Issue 5
  • Pongtavornpinyo W, S Yeung, IM Hastings, AM Dondorp, NPJ Day and NJ White.  Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance:  Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies.  Malaria Journal 2008, 7:229.  Available online at http://www.malariajournal.com/content/7/1/229
  • Reyburn H, Mbakilwa H, Mwangi R, Mwerinde O, Olomi R, Drakeley D, Whitty CJ, 2007. Rapid diagnostic tests compared with malaria microscopy for guiding outpatient treatment of febrile illness in Tanzania: a randomised trial. BMJ 334: 403
  • Reyburn H, R Mbatia, C Drakeley, I Carneiro, E Mwakasungula, O Mwerinde, K Saganda, J Shao, A Kitua, R Olomi, BM Greenwood and CJM Whitty.  Overdiagnosis of malaria in patients with severe febrile illness in Tanzania:  a prospective study.  BMJ 2004;329;1212
  • Roper C, Pearce R, Nair S, Sharp B, Nosten F, Anderson T. Intercontinental spread of pyrimethamine-resistant malaria. Science. 2004;305:1124
  • Schunk, M., W. P. Kumma, I. B. Miranda, M. E. Osman, S. Roewer, A. Alano, T. Loscher, U. Bienzle, and F. P. Mockenhaupt. 2006. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Southern Ethiopia. Malar. J. 5:54–559
  • Sibley CH and P Ringwald.  A database of antimalarial drug resistance.  Malaria Journal 2006, 5:48.
  • Su, X., Kirkman, L.A., Fujioka, H., and Wellems, T.E. 1997. Complex polymorphisms in an approximately 330 kDa protein are linked to chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum in Southeast Asia and Africa. Cell. 91:593–603
  • Tappero JW, Bradford WZ, Agerton TB, et al. Serum concentrations of antimycobacterial drugs in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Botswana. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:461–9. 32.
  • Tjitra E, NM Anstey, P Sugiarto, N Warikar, E Kenangalem, M Karyana, DA Lampah and RN Price.  Multi-drug-resistant plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal malaria: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Medicine. June 2008. Volume 5, Issue 6.  Available online at http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0050128
  • White N.  Antimalarial drug resistance. J. Clin. Invest. 113:1084-1092 (2004)
  • WHO/UNICEF.  2005. World Malaria Report.  Accessed online on 27 November, 2007 http://rbm.who.int/wmr2005/index.html (accessed on 27-29 November 2007)
  • Wongsrichanalai, C., J. Sirichaisinthop, J. J. Karwacki, K. Congpuong, R. S. Miller, L. Pang, and K. Thimasarn. 2001. “Drug Resistant Malaria on the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodian Borders.” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 32: 41–49

TB

  • Aerts A, Habouzit M, Mschiladze L, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis in prisons of the ex-USSR state Georgia: results of a nation-wide prevalence survey among sentenced inmates. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000;4: 1104–10
  • Andrews, JR, Shah NS, Gandhi N, Moll T and G Friedland.  Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: implications for the HIV epidemic and antiretroviral therapy rollout in South Africa.  Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007:196 (Suppl 3). 
  • Andrews J. Clinical predictors of drug resistance and mortality among tuberculosis patients in a rural South African hospital: a case-control study. New Haven, CT: Yale AIDS Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 2007
  • Aziz, M.A., A. Wright, A. Laszlo, A. De Muynck, F. Portaels, A. Van Deun, C. Wells, P. Nunn, L. Blanc, and M. Raviglione. 2006. “Epidemiology of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance (the Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance): An Updated Analysis.” Lancet 368(9553): 2142–54 and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006. “Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Extensive Resistance to Second- Line Drugs-Worldwide, 2000–2004.” 55(11): 301–05.
  • Balabanova Y, Ruddy M, Hubb J, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Russia: clinical characteristics, analysis of second-line drug resistance and development of standardized therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005; 24:136–9.
  • Balambal R. Profile of DOT providers in the private sector. Indian J Tuberc 2001;48:73-6
  • Bifani P, B Mathema, N Kurepina, E Shashkina, J Bertout, AS Blnachis, S Moghazeh, J Driscoll, B Gicquel, R Frothingham and BN Kreiswirth.  The Evolution of Drug Resistance in Myobacterium tuberculosis:  From a Mono-Rifampin-Resistant Cluster into Increasingly Multidrug-Resistant Variants in an HIV-Seropositive Population.  Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008:198 (1 July)
  • Blöndal, K. “Barriers to reaching the targets for tuberculosis control: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis” Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Volume 85, Number 5, May 2007
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs—worldwide, 2000–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006; 55: 301–5,
  • Conaty SJ, AC Hayward, A Story, JR Glynn, FA Drobniewski, JM Watson.  Exploring risk factors for drug resistant tuberculosis in England and Wales: contribution of primary and secondary drug resistance.  Epidemiology and infection, 2004 (Vol. 132) (no. 6) 1099-1108
  • Dewan P, Sosnovskaja A, Thomsen V, et al. High prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis, Republic of Lithuania, 2002. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2005; 9:170–4
  • Farmer, P Leandre F, Mukherjee J, Gupta R, Tarter L, Kim JY. Community-based treatment of advanced HIV disease: introducing DOT-HAART (directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy). Bull WHO 2001;79:1145-51 Finlay A, Lancaster J, Holtz T, et al. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment default, Republic of South Africa, 2002. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10(Suppl):153
  • Ghandi NR, Moll A, Sturm AW, et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet 2006; 368:1554–6
  • Holtz TH, Lancaster J, Laserson KF, Wells CD, Thorpe L, Weyer K. Risk factors associated with default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, South Africa, 1999–2001. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10:649–55
  • Hué S, RJ Gifford, D Dunn, E Fernhill and D Pillay.  Demonstration of sustained drug-resistance human immunodefinciency virus type 1 lineages circulating among treatment-naïve individuals.  Journal of Virology, Mar. 2009, p.2645-2654.  Available online at http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/JVI.01556-08v1.pdf
  • Kim DH, HJ Kim, S-K Park, S-J Kong, YS Kim, T-H Kim, EK Kim, KM Lee, S-S Lee, JS Park, W-J Koh, C-H Lee and TS Shim.  Treatment outcomes and survival based on drug resistance patterns in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010, doi: 10.1164/rccm.200911-1656OC
  • Kruijshaar M, JM Watson, F Drobniewski, C Anderson, TJ Brown, JG Magee, EG Smith, A Story and I Abubakar.  Increasing antituberculosis drug resistance in the United Kingdom:  analysis of national surveillance data.  BMJ Online first 30 March 2009.  Available online at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/bmj.39546.573067.25v1
  • Kruuner A, Danilov itsh M, Pehme L, Laisaar T, Hoffner SE, Katila ML. Tuberculosis as an occupational hazard for health care workers in Estonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001; 5:170–6
  • Lalloo UG.  Drug-resistant tuberculosis: reality and potential threat.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 14(3):255-258. 
  • Lubinski C, D Bryden and D Shesgreen.  Death by drug-resistant TB and how to stop it.  Center for Global Health Policy.  Infectious Disease Society of America.  March 2010.  Available online at http://www.idsaglobalhealth.org/GlobalHealthContent.aspx?id=14526
  • Lutfey M, Della-Latta P, Kapur V, et al. Independent origin of monorifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with AIDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 153:837–40Patel KB, Belmonte R, Crowe HM. Drug malabsorption and resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:336–7
  • March F, Garriga X, Rodriguez P, et al. Acquired drug resistance inMycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from compliant patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25:1044–7
  • Moniruzzaman A, RK Elwood, M Schulzer and JM Fitzgerald.  A population-based study of risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis in British Colombia.  International Journal of tuberculosis and lung diseases, Vol. 10, Number 6, June 2006 631-635
  • Munsiff SS, Joseph S, Ebrahimzadeh A, Frieden TR. Rifampin-monoresistant tuberculosis in New York City, 1993–1994. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25:1465–7
  • Pritchard AJ, AC Hayward, PN Monk and KR Neal. Risk factors for drug resistant tuberculosis in Leicestershire – poor adherence to treatment remains an important cause of resistance.  Epidemiology and Infection (2003), 130:481-483.
  • Ridzon R, Whitney CG, McKenna MT, et al. Risk factors for rifampin mono-resistant tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 1881–4
  • Ruddy M, Balabanova Y, Graham C, et al. Rates of drug resistance and risk factor analysis in civilian and prison patients with tuberculosis in Samara Region, Russia. Thorax 2005; 60:130–5
  • Sandgren A, M Strong, P Muthukrishnan, BK Weiner, GM Church and MB Murray.  Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database.  PLoS Medicine.  February 2009, Volume 6, Issue 2.  Available online at http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000002
  • Shin SS, M Yagui, G Yale, C Suarez, N Quispe, C Bonilla, J Blaya, A Taylor, C Contreras and P Cegielski.  Scale-up of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Laboratory Services, Peru.  Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 14.  Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/5/pdfs/07-0721.pdf
  • Suchindran S, ES Brouwer and A Van Rie.  Is HIV infection a risk factor for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis?  A systematic review.  PLoS One. May 2009, Volume 4, Issue 5.  Available online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005561
  • The WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance.  2008.  Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world.  Fourth global report.
  • Toungoussova OS, Bjune G, Caugant DA. Epidemic of tuberculosis in the former Soviet Union: social and biological reasons. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2006; 86:1–10
  • Toungoussova OS, Mariandyshev AO, Bjune G, Caugant DA, Sandven P. Resistance of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Archangel oblast, Russia, to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005; 24:202–6
  • Vernon A, Burman W, Benator D, Khan A, Bozeman L. Acquired rifamycin monoresistance in patients with HIV-related tuberculosis treated with once-weekly rifapentine and isoniazid. Tuberculosis Trials Consortium. Lancet 1999; 353:1843–7
  • Wells CD, Cegielski JP, Nelson LJ, et al. HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis— the perfect storm. J Infect Dis 2007; 196(Suppl 1):S86–107.  Available online at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/518665
  • World Health Organization ‘Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning, financing’ WHO report, 2007. Geneva.
  • World Health Organization/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance.  Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world 2002-2007. Fourth Global Report.  2008.  Available online at http://www.who.int/tb/publications/2008/drs_report4_26feb08.pdf
  • Wright A, M Zignol, A Van Deun, D Falzon, SR Gerdes, K Feldman, S Hoffner, F Drobniewski, L Barrera, D van Soolingen, F Boulabhal, CN Paramasivan, KM Kam, S Mitarai, P Nunn, M Raviglione for the Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance.  Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance 2002-2007: an updated analysis of the Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance.  Lancet April 16, 2009.
  • Zignol M, Hosseini MS,Wright A, et al. Global incidence of multi drug resistant tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 2006; 194:479–85

V. Cholerae

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality from Dysentery in Africa: A Follow-up Study in Burundi. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1993. CDC internal report cited in Pecoul B, P Chirac, P Trouiller and J Pinel.  Access to essential drugs in poor countries:  a lost battle?  JAMA 1999; 281: 361-367
  • Dalsgaard A, Forslund A, Petersen A, Brown DJ, Dias F, Monteiro S, et al. Class 1 integron-borne, multiple-antibiotic resistance encoded by a 150-kilobase conjugative plasmid in epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in Guinea-Bissau. J Clin Microbiol. 2000; 38:3774–9
  • Paquet C, Perea W, Grimont F, et al. Aetiology of hemorrhagic colitis epidemic in Africa. Lancet. 1993; 342:175
  • Siddique AK, Salam A, Islam MS, Akram K, Majumdar RN, Zaman K, et al. Why treatment centres failed to prevent cholera deathsamong Rwandan refugees in Goma, Zaire. Lancet. 1995;345: 359–61 cited in IN Okeke, OA Aboderin, DK Byarugaba, KK Ojo and JA Opintan.  Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Vol. 13, No 11, November 2007
  • Towner KJ, Pearson NJ, Mhalu FS, O’Grady F. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Vibrio cholerae E1 Tor strains isolated during the fourth cholera epidemic in the United Republic of Tanzania. Bull World Health Organ. 1980;58:747–51 and Finch MJ, Morris JG Jr, Kaviti J, Kagwanja W, Levine MM. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant cholera in Kenya and East Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;39:484–90

Shigella

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality from Dysentery in Africa: A Follow-up Study in Burundi. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1993. CDC internal report cited in Pecoul B, P Chirac, P Trouiller and J Pinel.  Access to essential drugs in poor countries:  a lost battle?  JAMA 1999; 281: 361-367
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality from Dysentery in Africa: A Follow-up Study in Burundi. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1993
  • Ding, J., Y. Ma, Z. Gong, and Y. Chen. 1999. “A Study on the Mechanism of the Resistance of Shigellae to Fluoroquinolones” (in Chinese). Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 38: 550–53. Drobniewski, F. A., and Y. M. Balabanova and Laxminarayan, R. et al. 2006. “Drug Resistance.” Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd ed., ed. D.T. Jamison, J.G. Breman, A.R. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D.B. Evans, P. Jha, A. Mills, and P. Musgrove, 1031-51. New York: Oxford University Press. http://www.dcp2.org
  • Jahan Y and A Hossain.  Multiple drug resistant Shigella dysenterae type 1 in Rajbari distrsict, Bangladesh.  J Diarrheal Dis. Res., 1997 Mar; 15(1):17-20
  • Legros, D., D. Ochola, N. Lwanga, and G. Guma. 1998. “Antibiotic Sensitivity of Endemic Shigella in Mbarara, Uganda.” East African Medical Journal 75 (3): 160–1.
  • Okumura J, Osaka K, Okabe N. Widespread multi-antimicrobial–resistant Shigella in Asia: What does it mean? [abstract AM 011]. 2nd International Conference on Improving Use of Medicines, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 430 March-2 April 2004.
  • Paquet C, Perea W, Grimont F, et al. Aetiology of hemorrhagic colitis epidemic in Africa. Lancet. 1993; 342:175
  • Sivapalasingam, S., Nelson, J. M., Joyce, K., Hoekstra, M., Angulo, F. J. & Mintz, E. D. (2006). High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50, 49–54.

S. pneumoniae

  • Adrian, P. V., and K. P. Klugman. 1997. “Mutations in the Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene of Trimethoprim-Resistant Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 41 (11): 2406–13
  • Albrich WC, Monnet DL, Harbarth S. Antibiotic selection pressure and resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:514-7
  • Jacobs, M. R., D. Felmingham, P. C. Appelbaum, R. N. Grünebera, and the Alexander Project Group. 2003. “The Alexander Project 1998–2000: Susceptibility of Pathogens Isolated from Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection to Commonly Used Antimicrobial Agents.” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 52: 229–46.
  • Klugman, K. P., H. J. Koornhof, V. Kuhnle, S. D.Miller, P. J. Ginsburg, and A. C.Mauff. 1986.“Meningitis and Pneumonia Due to Novel Multiply Resistant Pneumococci.” British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) 292 (6522): 730
  • McGee, L., L.McDougal, J. Zhou, B. G. Spratt, F. C. Tenover, R. George, and others. 2001. “Nomenclature of Major Antimicrobial-Resistant Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae Defined by the Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network.” Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39 (7): 2565–71 cited in Laxminarayan, R. et al. 2006. “Drug Resistance.” Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd ed., ed. D.T. Jamison, J.G. Breman, A.R. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D.B. Evans, P. Jha, A. Mills, and P. Musgrove, 1031-51. New York: Oxford University Press. http://www.dcp2.org
  • Melander E, Mölstad S, Persson K, et al. Previous antibiotic consumption and other risk factors for carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1998;17:834-8
  • Nuermberger EL and WR Bishai.  Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae:  what does the future hold?  Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 38(Suppl 4):S363-71
  • Schrag, S. J., C. Pena, J. Fernandez, J. Sanchez, V. Gomez, E. Perez, and others. 2001. “Effect of Short-Course, High-Dose Amoxicillin Therapy on Resistant Pneumococcal Carriage: A Randomized Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 286 (1): 49–56
  • Song J-H, Thamlikitkul V. ANSORP – Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens. 2nd International Coerence on Improving the Use of Medicines (ICIUM), Chiang Mai (Thailand), March 30-April 2, 2004. Available from: URL: http://mednet3.who.int/icium/icium2004/resources/ppt/O_AM048.ppt#2.  Accessed on 18 January 2008
  • Song JH, Lee NY, Ichiyama S, et al. Spread of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 28:1206–11
  • Whitney, C. G., M. M. Farley, J. Hadler, L. H. Harrison, N. M. Bennett, R. Lynfield, and others. 2003. “Decline in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after the Introduction of Protein-Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine.” New England Journal of Medicine 348 (18): 1737–46

Other antimicrobial resistance

  • Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA).  Shadow Epidemic:  The Growing Menace of Drug Resistance.  2005 GAARD Report
  • Austin DJ, Kristinsson KG, Anderson RM. The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96:1152–6.
  • Bavestrello L, Cabello A, Casanova D. Impact of regulatory measures in the trends of community consumption of antibiotics in Chile. Rev Med Chil. 2002;130:1265–72
  • Boucher HW, GH Talbot, JS Bradley, JE Edwards, D Gilbert, LB Rice, M Scheld, B Spellberg and J Bartlett.  Bad Bugs, No Drugs:  No ESKAPE!  An Update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009:48 (1 January)
  • Chuc, N. T., M. Larsson, N. T. Do, V. K. Diwan, G. B. Tomson, and T. Falkenberg. 2002. Improving private pharmacy practice: a multi-intervention experiment in Hanoi, Vietnam. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 55:1148–1155
  • Davidson RJ, I Davis, BM Willey, K Rizg, S Bolotin, V Porter, J Polsky, N Daneman, A McGeer, P Yang, D Scolnik, R Rowsell, O Imas, MS Silverman.  Antimalarial therapy selection for quinolone resistance among Escherichia coli in the absence of quinolone exposure, in tropical South America.  PLoS ONE 3(7): e2727. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002727.  Available online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002727
  • Department of Health, United Kingdom. The path of least resistance: main report of the Standing Medical Advisory Committee, Sub-Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. London: Department of Health, 1998
  • “Doi moi” and private pharmacies: a case study on dispensing and financial issues in Hanoi, Vietnam. Eur. J. Clin.Pharmacol. 55:325–332
  • ECDC/EMEA Joint Working Group Technical Report.  The bacterial challenge: time to react.  European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.  September 2009.  Accessible at http://www.ema.europa.eu/pdfs/human/antimicrobial_resistance/EMEA-576176-2009.pdf
  • Eichner M, M Schwehm, H-P Duerr, M Witschi, D Koch, SO Brockmann and B Vidondo.  Antiviral prophylaxis during pandemic influenza may increase drug resistance.  BMC Infectious Diseases. 2009, 9:4.  Available online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/9/4
  • Finch RG, Metlay JP, Davey PG, Baker LJ. Educational interventions to improve antibiotic use in the community: report from the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance (IFAR) colloquium, 2002. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004; 4:44–53.
  • Gonzales R, KK Corbett, V Wirtz and A Dreser.  A shrinking window of opportunity.  British Medical Journal.  2008;336;948-949
  • Grundmann H., M Aires-de-Sousa, J Boyce and E Tiemersma.  Emergence and resurgence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a public health threat.  The Lancet, Volume 368, Issue 9538, 2 September 2006
  • Hamburg MA, J Levi, K Elliot and L Williams.  Germs Go Global: Why Emerging Infectious Diseases are a Threat to America.  Trust for America’s Health.  October 2008.  Available online at http://healthyamericans.org/report/56/germs-go-global
  • Harbarth S, Samore MA. Antimicrobial resistance determinants and future control. Emerg Infect Dis 2005 Jun. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no06/05-0167.htm
  • Haynes RB, McKibbon KA, Kanani R. Systematic review of randomized trials of interventions to assist patients to follow prescriptions for medications. Lancet 1996; 348:383–6.
  • Heddini A, O Cars, S Qiang and G Tomson.  Antibiotic resistance in China – a major future challenge.  Lancet, Volume 373, issue 9657, 3 January 2009
  • Hill A, RP Guralnick, MJC Wilson, F Habib and D Janies. Evolution of drug resistance in multiple distict lineages of H5N1 avian influenza.  Infect. Genet. Evol. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.10.006
  • IN Okeke, OA Aboderin, DK Byarugaba, KK Ojo and JA Opintan.  Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Vol. 13, No 11, November 2007
  • Larsson, M., G. Kronvall, N. T. Chuc, I. Karlsson, F. Lager, H. D. Hanh, G. Tomson, and T. Falkenberg. 2000. Antibiotic medication and bacterial resistance to antibiotics: a survey of children in a Vietnamese community. Trop. Med. Int. Health 5:711–721
  • Laxminarayan, R. et al. 2006. “Drug Resistance.” Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd ed., ed. D.T. Jamison, J.G. Breman, A.R. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D.B. Evans, P. Jha, A. Mills, and P. Musgrove, 1031-51. New York: Oxford University Press. http://www.dcp2.org
  • Lipsitch M, RS Singer and BR Levin.  Antibiotics in agriculture: when is it time to close the barn door?  PNAS.  Vol. 99, no.9 April 30, 2002. 
  • Lipsitch M and MH Samore.  Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Vol. 8, No. 4, April 2002. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol8no4/01-0312.htm
  • Lipsitch M. The rise and fall of antimicrobial resistance.  Trends in Microbiology Vol. 9 No. 9 September 2001.
  • Livermore DM. Bacterial resistance: origins, epidemiology, and impact. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36(Suppl 1):S11–23.
  • MacPherson DW, BD Gushulak, WB Baine, S Bala, PO Gubbins, P Holtom and M Segarra-Newnham.  Population mobility, globalization and antimicrobial drug resistance.  Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 15, No. 11, November 2009.  Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/11/pdfs/09-0419.pdf
  • Martinez JL.  The role of natural environments in the evolution of resistance traits in pathogenic bacteria.  Proc. R. Soc. B. first published online 8 April 2009.  Available online at http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1667/2521.abstract
  • Mossialos E, C Morel, S Edwards, J Berenson, M Gemmill-Toyama and D Brogan.  Policies and incentives for promoting innovation in antibiotic research.  The London School of Economics and The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.  2009.  Available online at http://www2.lse.ac.uk/LSEHealthAndSocialCare/LSEHealth/News/Antibiotics%20Report.aspx
  • Mulvey M and AE Simor.  Antimicrobial resistance in hospitals:  How concerned should we be?  CMAJ, 180(4), February 17, 2009.  Available online at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/180/4/408
  • IN Okeke, OA Aboderin, DK Byarugaba, KK Ojo and JA Opintan.  Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa.  Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Vol. 13, No 11, November 2007
  • Okeke, I. et al. “Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Part I: recent trends and current status.” Lancet Infectious Disease 2005:5
  • Okumura, J., S. Wakai, and T. Umenai. 2002. Drug utilization and self-medication in rural communities in Vietnam. Soc. Sci. Med. 54:1875–1886
  • Outterson K. The Vanishing Public Domain:  Antibiotic resistance, pharmaceutical innovation and intellectual property law.  University of Pittsburg Law Review, Vol 67:1 (2005) and Outterson K, J. Samora and K. Keller-Cuda.  Will longer antimicrobial patients improve global public health?  The Lancet Infectious Diseases.  Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 559-566
  • Nordberg, P., D. L. Monnet, and O. Cars. 2004. Antibacterial drug resistance. Background document for the WHO project: priority medicines for Europe and the world—a public health approach to innovation. World Health Organization.  Available online at http://soapimg.icecube.snowfall.se/stopresistance/Priority_Medicine_Antibacterial_background_docs_final.pdf
  • Nordberg P, Stålsby Lundborg S and Göran Tomson. Consumers and providers – could they make better use of antibiotics?  The Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance:  Exploring Roads towards Concerted Action.  Background Document prepared for a Multidisciplinary meeting at the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation.  Uppsala, Sweden, 5-7 May 2004.  Available online at http://mednet3.who.int/prioritymeds/report/append/Consumers_and_providers.pdf
  • Rice LB.  Federal funding for the study of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens: no ESKAPE.  Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008:197 (15 April).  Available online at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/533452
  • Roter DL, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Effectiveness of interventions to improve patient compliance: a meta-analysis. Med Care 1998; 36:1138–61 Tickell S. The Antibiotic Innovation Study: Expert Voices on a Critical Need. React, November 2005
  • Van Duong, D., C. W. Binns, and T. Van Le. 1997. Availability of antibiotics as over-the-counter drugs in pharmacies: a threat to public health in Vietnam. Trop. Med. Int. Health 2:1133–1139
  • World Health Organization.  Community-based surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance in resource-constrained settings.  Report on five pilot projects.  March 2009.  Available online at http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/m/abstract/Js16168e/
  • Zhang R, K Eggleston, V Rotimi and RJ Zeckhauser.  Antibiotic resistance as a global threat: Evidence from China, Kuwait and the United States.  Globalization and Health 2006, 2:6.  Available online at http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/2/1/6

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