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Summary of Studies Estimating Energy Access Requirements

* Assumes five individuals per household for household-level models.
Model Estimate terminology kWh/cap/year* Methodology Household needs
Goldemberg, et al. (1985) Energy for basic human needs 8766 total; 3506 noncommercial Incorporates direct electricity and fuel needed to meet basic human requirements, including direct residential and indirect commercial consumption needs Direct Residential: cooking, hot water, refrigeration, lights, TV, clothes washer; Indirect residential: transportation, manufacturing, agriculture, mining/construction
Pasternak (2000) Electricity threshold for maximum HDI 4000 Human Development Index is plotted against annual per-capita electricity consumption, value of consumption that maximizes HDI (at 0.9) set as threshold N/A
Pachauri and Spreng (2002) Energy Poverty Line 4383 Aggregates energy consumption across urban and rural households, using Indian consumption data as basis, incorporating direct and indirect consumption. Lighting, cooking, hot water, refrigerator, radio, TV
Pachauri and Spreng (2004) Energy Poverty Line 2360 (rural) Breaks down estimates above for rural consumption
Chidebell- Emordi (2014) Minimal energy poverty line 3068 (urban) Survey data from Nigeria. Estimates requirements for basic household energy needs Five light bulbs, a refrigerator, three fans, a television, a radio, a DVD player, an iron, a two-plate electric cooker, other tasks at sunset
Sierra Club (2014) Access to energy (Tier 2) 10 Projects energy efficiency improvements to household appliance usage in tiered model General lighting, TV, fan
Prayas (2015) Dignified living 2344 Multiple estimation approaches for the year 2031 N/A
IEA Standard Modern energy access 100 urban; 50 rural N/A N/A
ESMAP Annual consumption level for energy access (Tier 4) 250 Multi-tier matrix of energy services and appliances available at each level, multiplied by daily use estimates Task lighting, general lighting, phone charging, radio, fan, television, food processing, washing machine, refrigerator, iron

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