Ideas to Action:

Independent research for global prosperity

Greece

2013

Aid

Aid quality is just as important as aid quantity, so the CDI measures gross aid as a share of GDP adjusted for various quality factors: it subtracts debt service, penalizes “tied” aid that makes recipients spend aid only on donor goods and services, rewards aid to poor but relatively well-governed recipients, and penalizes overloading poor governments with many small projects.

Greece’s aid performance

  • Score: 1.6
  • Rank: 21

 

Strengths

  • Prevents project proliferation; large average project size (rank: 6)

Weaknesses

  • Low net aid volume as a share of the economy (0.15%; rank: 21)
  • Large share of tied or partially tied aid (61.29%; rank: 22)
  • Small amount of private charitable giving attributable to tax policy (0% of GDP; rank 19) – in 2011 Greece failed to report any charitable giving.
 

Trade

International trade has been a force for economic development for centuries. The CDI measures trade barriers in rich countries against exports from developing countries. It also penalizes costly importation processes and restrictions against purchasing services from foreigners.

Greece’s trade performance

  • Score: 4.9
  • Rank: 23

Strengths

  • As a member state of the European Union, Greece imposes low tariffs on agricultural products including wheat, dairy, some meats, textiles and apparel

Weaknesses

  • As a member state of the European Union Greece imposes high tariffs on rice, sugar and beef
  • High agricultural subsidies (equivalent to a tariff worth 17.7% of the value of imports; rank: 26)
  • Relatively high cost to import a shipping container ($1,153 per container; rank: 19)
  • Many documents required for importation (19 documents; rank: 26)
  • Many days to import a shipping container (6 days; rank: 21)
 

Finance

Rich-country investment in poorer countries can transfer technologies, upgrade management and create jobs. Conversely, policies that permit financial secrecy of companies and banks can facilitate illicit activities and financial flows abroad. The CDI rewards policies that support healthy investment in developing countries and promote transparency in financial transactions at home.

Greece’s finance performance

  • Score: 4.7
  • Rank: 19

Strengths

  • Provides assistance to companies looking for investment opportunities in developing countries
  • Scores above average in the Financial Secrecy Index for regulations in place to promote transparent financial transactions within its jurisdiction (rank: 7)
Weaknesses
  • Political risk insurance only available to national firms
  • Negligence in prosecuting home-country bribe payers 
  • Does not provide official support for outflows of portfolio investment

Migration

The movement of people from poor to rich countries provides unskilled immigrants with jobs, income and knowledge. This increases the flow of money sent home by migrants abroad and the transfer of skills when the migrants return.

Greece’s migration performance

  • Score: 4.5
  • Rank: 15

Strengths

  • Bears large share of the burden of refugees during humanitarian crises (rank: 6)
  • Large share of foreign students from developing countries (95%; rank: 1)
Weaknesses
  • Small number of immigrants from developing countries entering Greece (rank by share of population: 21)

Environment

Rich countries use a disproportionate amount of scarce resources, and poor countries are most vulnerable to global warming and ecological deterioration, so the CDI measures the impact of policies on the global climate, fisheries and biodiversity.

Greece’s environment performance

  • Score: 5.9
  • Rank: 20

Strengths

  • High gas taxes ($1.47 per liter; rank: 5)
  • Low greenhouse gas emissions rate per capita (13.1 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent; rank: 14)
Weaknesses
  • High fishing subsidies (rank: 25)
  • Poor compliance with mandatory reporting requirements under multilateral environmental agreements relating to biodiversity (rank: 27)
 

Security

Since security is a prerequisite for development, the CDI rewards contributions to internationally sanctioned peacekeeping operations and forcible humanitarian interventions, military protection of global sea lanes, and participation in international security treaties. It also penalizes arms exports to poor and undemocratic governments.

Greece’s security performance

  • Score: 5.6
  • Rank: 8

Strengths

  • Significant personnel contributions to internationally-sanctioned peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions over last decade (rank by share of GDP: 6)

Weaknesses

  • Has not ratified the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM)
  • Low personnel contributions to UN peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions over last decade (rank by share of GDP: 22)
 

Technology

Rich countries contribute to development through the creation and dissemination of new technologies. The CDI captures this by measuring government support for R&D and penalizing strong intellectual property rights regimes that limit the dissemination of new technologies to poor countries.

Greece’s technology performance

  • Score: 2.7
  • Rank: 25

Strengths

  • Will force patent holders to license to meet social needs
  • Provides patent exceptions for research purposes
Weaknesses
  • Low government support for R&D (rank: 25)
  • Allows patents on plant and animal varieties
  • Pushes to extend intellectual property rights in bilateral trade treaties (“TRIPS Plus” measures) that restrict the flow of innovations to developing countries
  • Imposes strict limitations on anti-circumvention technologies that can defeat encryption of copyrighted digital materials