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Donor funding for HIV/AIDS has skyrocketed in the last decade: from US$ 300 million in 1996 to US$ 8.9 billion in 2006. Yet, little is understood about how these resources are being spent. This second major output from CGD's HIV/AIDS Monitor team analyzes the policies and practices of the world's largest AIDS donors -- the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank's Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program for Africa (MAP) -- as they are applied in Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia, and compares these systems against six key funding practices that can help donors support the national AIDS response in a manner consistent with the aid effectiveness principles of the Paris Declaration. These best practices are: working with the government; building local capacity; keeping funding flexible; selecting appropriate recipients; making the money move; and collecting and sharing data. PEPFAR scores well on making its money move and on collecting data; the Global Fund ranks high on tailoring programs and sharing data; and the World Bank stands out for its long-term commitment to working with the government, strengthening systems and building local recipients' capacity.