Children in developing countries get lots of schooling, but they are not necessarily learning. To address this, countries need new forms of feedback, experimentation, and financing that conventional aid is ill-suited to provide. This paper reviews experiences with an unconventional aid modality—paying for results—as it could apply to learning. It proposes creating a Global Offer for Learning that would give countries an award for conducting a competency test and a bonus for each child who has mastered basic skills. The paper explains how such a program could be implemented and accelerate institutional changes needed to improve student learning.