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In timely and incisive analysis, our experts parse the latest development news and devise practical solutions to new and emerging challenges. Our events convene the top thinkers and doers in global development.
Dr Caterina Gennaioli, Grantham Research Institute, LSE
Matt Collin, Research Fellow, CGD Europe
Illegal disposal of toxic waste has become an issue of concern in both developing and developed countries. Recent anecdotal evidence has highlighted that hazardous waste is shipped from developed countries and illegally dumped in Africa, in particular in the area of the Horn of Africa, during road construction works. The potential health and economic consequences on the local population are devastating. Illegal disposal of toxic waste has become an issue of concern in both developing and developed countries. Recent anecdotal evidence has highlighted that hazardous waste is shipped from developed countries and illegally dumped in Africa, in particular in the area of the Horn of Africa, during road construction works. The potential health and economic consequences on the local population are devastating.
In this seminar, Caterina Gennaioli (along with Gaia Narciso, Trinity College Dublin) uses extensive data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and GPS data to analyse the relationship between recently-built roads and the health status of households. They disentangle the effect of common road pollution from the effect of hazardous waste by focusing on specific health measures which the medical literature has linked to toxic waste exposure: infant mortality, severe anaemia and a person's haemoglobin level.
The results both from cross sectional and panel data analysis are striking: an additional road within 5 km increases the probability that an average mother experiences an infant death by 2.1%. In addition children under five, living near a recently built road show a lower level of haemoglobin and are more likely to suffer of severe anaemia. The results are strong and significant only along two main routes which connect landlocked Ethiopia to Djibouti and Somalia. These results support the existing anecdotal evidence that it is along these routes that toxic waste is entering in the Horn of Africa.
*The CGD Europe Seminars bring some of the world's leading development scholars to discuss their new research and ideas. The presentations aim to meet an academic standard of quality, are at times technical, and retain a focus on a mixed audience of researchers and policymakers.
Every year, more than 5 million women, children and adolescents die from preventable conditions, due to a significant financing gap for healthcare for women, children and adolescents, and inadequate incentives for provision and use of quality health services, among other factors. The Global Financing Facility (GFF) in support of Every Woman Every Child is a new approach to sustainable global health financing that is supporting countries’ approaches to financing and investing in the health of their people.
Many practitioners and researchers are grappling with how to better measure women’s and girls’ empowerment in impact evaluations. Which approaches to measuring a complex social outcome like decision-making power should we use, and can we improve on our existing models? When should we use internationally standardized survey questions and when is it better to develop locally tailored ones? Can non-survey instruments pick up useful information that surveys can’t, and when should we think about using them?
Five members of the Zimbabwe Working Group traveled to Harare May 20-25 to meet with the government, opposition leaders, and a wide range of business, religious, and civil society organizations to assess prospects for free and fair elections and for meaningful political and economic reform. Please join us to hear from the delegation as they share their findings and recommendations for US policy.
For over a decade, Boko Haram has waged a campaign of terror across northeastern Nigeria. In 2014, the kidnapping of 276 girls in Chibok shocked the world, giving rise to the #BringBackOurGirls movement. Yet Boko Haram’s campaign of violence against women and girls goes far beyond the Chibok abductions. From its inception, the group has systematically exploited women to advance its aims. Perhaps more disturbing still, some Nigerian women have chosen to become active supporters of the group, even sacrificing their lives as suicide bombers. These events cannot be understood without first acknowledging the long-running marginalization of women in Nigerian society. Having conducted extensive fieldwork throughout the region, Matfess provides a vivid and thought-provoking account of Boko Haram’s impact on the lives of Nigerian women, as well as the wider social and political context that fuels the group’s violence.