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Democratic control of both houses of Congress will undoubtedly force changes in many U.S. policies, from the war in Iraq to the minimum wage. But what about U.S. aid to Africa? In this CGD Note senior fellow Todd Moss uses just-released data from the first term of the Bush administration to explore patterns in U.S. official development assistance. He finds that under President George W. Bush U.S. assistance to Africa has sharply increased, reaching $4.2 billion in 2005, nearly four times the level of 2000, and more than twice the level of any previous administration. He also finds that aid to Africa is higher when the same party controls both the White House and Congress and that, based on historical patterns, the change in Congress could result in a decline of about $800m in aid to Africa.