- sea and river defenses
- boosting water supply infrastructure for drought-prone regions
- planting of natural defenses such as trees and mangroves
- development of new crop strains resistant to higher temperatures or drought
- public education on issues such as saving water
- There is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, if we take strong action now.
- The costs of stabilising the climate are significant but manageable; delay would be dangerous and much more costly.
- Action on climate change is required across all countries, and it need not cap the aspirations for growth of rich or poor countries.
- A range of options exists to cut emissions; strong, deliberate policy action is required to motivate their take-up.
- Climate change demands an international response, based on a shared understanding of long-term goals and agreement on frameworks for action.
- Emissions trading: Expanding and linking the growing number of emissions trading schemes around the world is a powerful way to promote cost-effective reductions in emissions and to bring forward action in developing countries; strong targets in rich countries could drive flows amounting to tens of billions of dollars each year to support the transition to low-carbon development paths.
- Technology cooperation: Informal co-ordination as well as formal agreements can boost the effectiveness of investments in innovation around the world. Globally, support for energy R&D should at least double, and support for the deployment of new low-carbon technologies should increase up to five-fold. International cooperation on product standards is a powerful way to boost energy efficiency.
- Action to reduce deforestation: The loss of natural forests around the world contributes more to global emissions each year than the transport sector. Curbing deforestation is a highly cost-effective way to reduce emissions; large scale international pilot programs to explore the best ways to do this could get underway very quickly.
- Adaptation: The poorest countries are most vulnerable to climate change. It is essential that climate change be fully integrated into development policy, and that rich countries honor their pledges to increase support through overseas development assistance. International funding should also support improved regional information on climate change impacts, and research into new crop varieties that will be more resilient to drought and flood.
CGD blog posts reflect the views of the authors, drawing on prior research and experience in their areas of expertise. CGD is a nonpartisan, independent organization and does not take institutional positions.