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CGD’s work in education focuses on the role education can play in building more equal and prosperous societies.
CGD’s education program focuses on broad welfare goals and seeks to understand the role education can play in addressing inequity. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in getting girls and boys into school, education has not yet fulfilled its promise of being the great societal equalizer. Gender inequality remains acute and deeply rooted in the economic, political and social spheres in developing countries. Intergenerational mobility is declining, not increasing. Poor children get educated in bad schools where they do not acquire basic numeracy and literacy skills while rich children attend good schools.
Our research examines the mechanisms through which education can give children equal life opportunities and build the human capital that nations need to prosper.
This present paper, by Mohammad Niaz Asadullah and Nazmul Chaudhury therefore makes an important contribution to the literature in a key area of CGD concern. Using a representative sample of 2400 households producing data on 3323 children aged 10 to 17 they assess ability to answer simple arithmetic question (either oral or written).
My guest on this week’s Global Prosperity Wonkcast is CGD senior fellow Lant Pritchett, whose new book, The Rebirth of Education: Schooling Ain’t Learning, was released last month and is now available on Kindle. The book addresses a fundamental problem in education: despite great progress to meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goal target for primary school completion, students the world over are leaving school having learned very little. “They need to be in school and learn,” Pritchett says. “If you create systems where the only measures of schooling are kids in seats, you’re going to get measures of time served rather than learning gained.”
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Schooling Ain’t Learning – And What to Do About It:
New Book Exposes Education Failures around the World
More information about the book
Book Launch-September 30
Buy the book
Washington, DC – A global push to get all kids enrolled in school has been largely successful—most countries will meet or nearly meet the Millennium Development Goal that each child “complete a full course of primary schooling” by 2015. But a new book by Lant Pritchett from the Center for Global Development documents a deeply disturbing reality: for millions of children in the developing world schooling is not producing “education” in any real sense.
Consider these examples from the book, The Rebirth of Education: Schooling Ain’t Learning:
· In India less than half of children surveyed in grade 5 could read a grade 2 level story, one in four could not read a simple sentence, and only slightly more than half could do subtraction.
· In Tanzania six-out-of-ten students who took the 2012 examination for secondary school completers failed.
· In Pakistan a child who enters fifth grade not knowing how to do simple division has only a one-in-six chance of learning in an entire year of schooling.
· Pritchett not only sounds the alarm. He goes on to diagnose these failures and propose a potentially transformative new approach to education.
The result of years of research, including time Pritchett spent studying schools in India, the book offers shocking new analysis and data about the current state of education in developing countries and a trenchant critique of the global focus on enrollment rather than learning.
“We often see education as one of the most powerful tools for escaping poverty,” says Nancy Birdsall, president of CGD. “In this important book, Lant Pritchett reveals the great divide between schooling and learning and reminds readers that our goal is not to get students into classrooms but rather to prepare young people to become productive members of the community.”
Pritchett begins his book with a story from India. In 2006, MIT researchers conducted a rigorous evaluation of schools in Uttar Pradesh, one of India’s poorest states, only to discover that many fifth-graders could not read a simple story, do basic division, or even recognize letters of the alphabet. At a village meeting Pritchett listened as the father of a boy who was unable to read rose to address the school principal:
“You have betrayed us. I have worked like a brute my whole life because, without school, I had no skills other than those of a donkey. But you told us that if I sent my son to school, his life would be different than mine. For five years I have kept him from the fields and sent him to your school. Only now I find out that he is thirteen years old and doesn’t know anything. His life won’t be different. He will labor like a brute, just like me.”
The principal responds: “It is not our fault. We do what we can with your children. But you are right, you are brutes and donkeys. The children of donkeys are also donkeys. We cannot be expected to teach your children. They come from your homes stupid and you cannot expect that they will be home from school anything other than stupid.”
India is not alone. Even in middle-income countries with high average years of schooling, between one-third and two-thirds of 15-year-old students do not meet even the most basic math, reading, and science learning goals. In Brazil, Turkey, Indonesia, and Mexico, over 50 percent of 15-year-old students with over five years of schooling do not meet math goals. When compared to their counterparts in rich countries, the educational divide is even clearer: 15-year-old students from Thailand, Mexico, Mauritius, and Chile fall below the 20th percentile of students in Denmark. Students from Qatar, Ghana, Saudi Arabia, and El Salvador fall below the 5th percentile when compared to their counterparts in Australia.
“This problem couldn’t be more important,” says Pritchett. “A child who finishes school at age 15 this year and plans to work until age 65 will be in the labor force until the year 2063. These children are emerging from primary schooling or even secondary schooling with so few skills that they are unprepared for today’s economy, much less for the economy of 2030 or 2063. Their lack of basic education is a burden they will bear for decades.”
Part of the problem is the emphasis on inputs instead of outputs. Desks and chairs, pencils and textbooks, students and teachers may look like a school but they don’t always add up to learning. Pritchett borrows a term from biology, “isomorphic mimicry,” to describe this phenomenon of looking like something else without acquiring the core functions, as when a non-poisonous butterfly evolves to look similar to a poisonous species to avoid being eaten by birds.
In describing education systems, Pritchett borrows from The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations, by Ori Brafman and Rod Beckstrom. In many countries, Pritchett says, the schooling system is controlled by a large government-owned, top-down bureaucracy – a “spider.” This spider dictates everything: which schools get built, which programs get funded, which teacher gets assigned to which school. Despite the bureaucracy’s extensive reach – the spider’s web – all decisions are made in one centralized location – the spider’s brain.
The Uttar Pradesh school principal’s rebuttal reflects one of the problems of the spider school system, Pritchett observes. In a top-down system, all the power rests with administrators. But educating children requires a system far more complex and flexible than a top-down bureaucracy, what Pritchett calls a “starfish system.”
A starfish, unlike a spider, is a radically decentralized organism – some species of starfish have no brain at all and a starfish’s parts are loosely connected and controlled by local actions. Pritchett praises starfish systems for being locally operated, performance-driven, and open.
The problem is that form follows function. Instead of focusing on what education should look like Pritchett urges a renewed focus on what schools are meant to do. This can only be achieved by encouraging school systems to measure learning outcomes – and allowing local schools the freedom to create schools that best meet learning goals.
He makes clear that there is no single solution that will solve the problem for all schools. Rather the “pivot to learning” he advocates will require school systems that are more like starfish and less like spiders: open, locally operated, performance-pressured, professional networked, and technically and financially supported.
The Rebirth of Education has received wide praise:
“With abundant data, experience, and clear thinking, Pritchett makes a compelling case for why more of the same won’t cut it anymore, how we need to think deeply about how change happens and who can drive it, and why we need to be suspicious of experts and blueprints,” says Rakesh Rajani, founder and head of Twaweza, a Tanzanian NGO.
"Lant Pritchett's path-breaking and courageous work exposes the scandal of education policy in development, which contents itself with achieving quantitative targets on student enrollment even when no real education is happening,” said William Easterly, Professor of Economics at New York University. “Nobody reading this book will ever think about education the same way again."
“Lant Pritchett’s recommendations will disappoint both orthodox economists and orthodox educators since they do not reinforce any of the standard recipes. But those willing to be convinced by Pritchett’s logic and the particular blend of caring and impishness that characterizes his writing will be justifiably alarmed, then enlightened, and finally filled with hope,” says Luis Crouch, chief technical officer, International Development Group. “I urge all my colleagues to read it immediately.”
The Rebirth of Education: Schooling Ain’t Learning will be released on Monday, September 30 at an event hosted by the Center for Global Development. More information about the book and the launch event can be found on the CGD website.
Notes for Editors:
Members of the media interested in attending the launch event should contact media relations associate Catherine An by calling 202-416-4040 or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org. The book launch is slated for Monday, September 30 at 4 pm at the Center for Global Development.
About the Book:
The Rebirth of Education: Schooling Ain’t Learning may be ordered through Brookings Institution Press. ISBN: 978-1-933286-77-8.
The "arbiter of value" is a key concept in Mark Moore’s RISE working paper: "Creating Efficient, Effective and Just Educational Systems through Multi-Sector Strategies of Reform." This concept, which he brings to the education sector after decades of experience in a variety of public sector organizations (his 1994 book Creating Public Value is a classic in the field), helps understand the industrial organization of basic schooling and why schooling is mostly publicly managed around the world—and even why a failed political coup affects who can teach school in Turkey.
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Back in the 1960s and 70s, the standard model of how to make poor countries rich was to insert capital, whether for investments in infrastructure or for human capital investments like education and health.
Did we reach the 2015 global education goals? The UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report just launched their final 2015 report (complete with slick data viz and video). There was acceleration in progress after 2000, but still some countries have a way to go, and we still don’t know enough about what kids are actually learning.