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European Union members are collectively the largest aid donor in the world and give over half of global aid, and the EU’s policies have a major bearing on global development—from migration, to trade, agriculture and security. CGD is bringing its innovative thinking and evidence-based, practical propositions to the unique European context.
One needs just to look at the newspaper headlines to see that the problem of migrants is growing daily in Europe and that its gravity is greater than before. The number of migrants this year has already exceeded 100,000 (about 15 percent higher than the last, record, year); the number of the dead has reached at least several thousand although the statistics are murky since no one has incentive to compile them. People just die in desert or sea and no one cares. Practically every European country thinks about either deporting the migrants, making the asylum laws more difficult, or simply shutting the borders.
In 2010, Norway and Indonesia signed a US$1 billion performance agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emission from deforestation. The experience holds lessons for international cooperation in addressing climate change and other global challenges.
The concept of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and its framing of forest protection as a climate mitigation approach mark a clear paradigm shift – after decades of up-front financing of traditional ODA projects REDD+ follows the logic of ex-post payments for measured and verified performance within much larger jurisdictions.
Norway – a small northern country with only 5 million inhabitants – is at present a global leader in REDD+ financing. In this paper, we explain why and how this happened by telling the story about the emergence of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI) in 2007 and its institutionalization in the following years.